yesterday i arrived/came home i arrived home yesterday. Sentence topiopic ii comment # 2 wakanyeza kin lila ceya pi (transl. the child very/really they cried The children were/are really crying. Sentence # 1 top marker topic ii sentence # 2 (Tohan) htalehan wagli k'un hehan wakanyeza kin lila ceya pi (When) yesterday i came home : then the children were really crying Yesterday, when i arrived home, the children were really crying. Notice: It seems that sentence #2, here in total has two topics it is commenting on, namely sentence #1 marked by the topic marker _k'un_ plus _hehan_ which kind of repeats/points back to _tohan_ (that usually is omitted - and itself being a topic within. And, there are still more kinds of using whole sentences as topics,. G.: New word: _keya_ ke'ya (s/he said it) - it seems that the word derived from _kin eya_ ( topic marker s/he said) topic (sentence #1) comment (sentence #2) htalehan gli keye yesterday s/he came home s/he said S/he said that s/he came home yesterday. Or S/he came home yesterday, s/he said.
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Here is an example: New type of word: _un_ un - with, by means of etc. New word: _sunkpala_ shuNkpa'la - dog pet/puppy, from _sunka_ Remember: _ t'A_ - s/he, it died, _na-_ - by foot/wheel action topiopic ii comment sunkpala kin iyecinkiyanke un nat'e pelo (pi yelo)! The puppy by (a) car they foot-action-died male assertion The puppies were killed (run over) by a car! The above rule-of-thumb only seems to hold for objects pointed to by the comment part, which roughly go by this order, whereas other topics are free - see below. New word: _aguyapi_ agu'-ya-pi - bread _ecela_ ece'la - alone, only _ni_ ni'n - s/he, it lives, is alive topiopic ii comment aguyapi ecela un wicasa kin ni pi sni. By bread alone the man they-live not "Man lives not from bread alone" (Men do not live aloud from bread alone) seeing that most of the topic words in principle are nothing else than the one-word sentences we already had encountered on the comment's side (although. You have arrived here topic marker (s/he or) it is-good/nice female assertion! "It is good that you have arrived here!" - "Welcome (here)!" Here, the topic is translated as a whole sentence you have arrived here hence, in the entire topic-comment structure, it is given as a subordinate clause! And, of course, these topic sentences need not be just one-word sentences as found on the comment side and transferred to the topics side to make them topics, they can consist of more complex sentences as well, thus having topics of their own. G., let's see the following example - now with the use of the enclitic _k'un_ - already introduced above! New words: _gli_ gli' - s/he, it arrived/came home rabbit - to arrive/come home _ceyA_ che'-ya (he) ceye - s/he, it cried - to cry/weep (also: to pray) _htalehan_ hta'-le-han - to-be-yesterday - yesterday (the day before today) _lila_ li'la - really/very _tohan_ to'-han - when?
And, maybe, as kind of a rule to stick to: In this sort of one-word sentences which can take three participants ( 'ditransitives the topic i- slot is for subjects, the topic ii- slot for - 'animate' - indirect objects. The participants referred to by _-ki-_ (simply speaking: the one(s) smth is given to or taken away from!) and topic iii- slot for the direct objects (the one(s) indicating what has been given or taken away). The topic 'words' - in principle - do not express plurality - (apart from the _ota_ added to _wicasa_ here) this job is done almost exclusively by the 'commenting' one-word sentence. Here, the _-wica-_ part (expressing 'them points to topic ii ( wicasa ) thus indicating plurality, whereas the sentence as such ma-kinun_ ) with its 3rd person singular agent (s/he, it related to topic i, denotes that _winyan_ has to be regarded as singular. Since in this kind of one-word sentences ( ditransitives ) the direct object (here, 'that taken away is rather implied than expressed, it cannot itself indicate plurality (or singularity ) of the topic iii- word online ( _cante_ ). So, if its plurality is necessary or wished to be expressed explicitely, this must be accomplished at the topic word itself (how this can be done in lakota, we will see later). As mentioned earlier, there can be many topics that are not already somehow - in nuce - included in the comment sentence and pointed to.
The giver(s the one(s) given and the recipient(s) as seen above. Notice that one-word sentences - like _manun_, here - can be made ditransitives by adding (incorporating) particles to them long - like the dative marker _-ki-_ or others seen above - so they can express more participants and point to more topics directly. In other words, one can create additional slots for objects. _ni_ nin' - s/he lived/lives - one participant _niyA(n - niye - s/he causes/caused to live; s/he, it breathes/breathed - one participant _nikiya_ - nikiye - s/he causes/caused his/her/its own to live - two participant s _nikiya_ nikhi'ya - nikiye - s/he causes/caused him/her/it. To live - that who. saviour - one participant New words: _wowapi_ wo'wa-pi (lit.: 'smth they wrote' - smth written - to be a letter, book ) topic i as for: topic ii as for: comment translation to English he sunkawakan wan ma k'u s/he gave a horse. Is _ma wica kinun_ (s/he, it stole smb/smth from them the three participants can point to three topics 'words:. _ winyan_ (woman), _wica(sa golf (man) and _cante_ chaNte' (heart here: _cantepi_ chaNte'-pi* (their heart) in order to form a fancy sentence like: Why this is so, we will see later!) topiopic i 1 topic ii topic iii comment winyan kin le wica ota (kin) cantepi.
The coyote has killed a dog! Lakota kin sunkawakan eya wicaoyuspa pi the Indians caught some horses atewaye kin iyecinkiyanke wan opetun my father bought an automobile Usually, the subject of a comment's sentence refers to topic i, whereas an object is related to one of the following topics. Yet, one should always keep in mind that this is not a strict rule, since there is only context to decide where each of the built-in participants of the comment sentence is pointing to! As mentioned already, topic words (and, as we will see, also phrases and sentences!) not only can be referred to by comments subjects or direct objects (sorry for these grammatical expressions! but also by so-called indirect objects and still other parts of speech. There are 'verbs' (one-word sentences) bearing the dative infix _ki_ or just having a dative notion from its semantic,. G.: _k'u_ k'u' (s/he, it gives him/her/it to him/her/it, to give. (s/he, it gave it., to you etc.) _manun_ maNnu'n (to steal) - _ma ki nuN_ ma-ki'-nuN ( to steal smth from smb ). These are also called ditransitive simply because being able to have/express three (and more) participants,.
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Le miye as for: this one : i am the one - routine this. Sunkawakan oyuspa pi As for: horse : they caught it - they caught (a) horse. Topic Marker One important kind of words are so-called topic markers following words other than 'innate' topic words like _le_, _he_ etc.,. Those little one-word sentences mainly dealt with up to now, in order essay to indicate their syntactical function as a topic. Some of this new kind of 'little words'.
Are the following: topic marker explanation _kin_ kin or _ki_ Determines the topic to be definite - in many cases comparable to English 'the' _wan _ wan determines the topic to be indefinite - in many cases comparable to English 'a/an/one' _eya_ eya' determines the. see below. _wicasa kin_ wicha'sha-kin usually can be looked at (and translated) as ' the adult male/ the man which is just the same with _sunkawakan wan_ shu'nkawakxaN-waN ( a/one horse) or _atewaye kin_ (lit.: "the one-i-have-as-a-father" - my father _tunkasilayapi kin_ txunka'shila-ya-pi-kin from: _tunkasilayA_ - have-as-a-grandfather. (We'll hear of _k'un_ later!) Some new words: _winyan_ wi'nyan (be-a-woman) _tehila_ thehi'la (to love/be affectionate to smb) _anpetu_ aNpe'tu (to be day) - _anpetu kin le_ the day this here' - today) _itawa_ itxa'wa (to possess, own _mitawa_, _nitawa_, he) tawa_, _-untawa pi_. i own him/her/it '.) _sunka_ shu'nka (to be a dog _sungmanitu_ shu'Ngma'Nnitu (to be a coyote, 'wilderness-dog _lakota_ lakxo'ta (be a lakota, native, indian) _iyecinkiyanke_ iye'-chin-k-inyanke (lit.: "runs-by-itself to be an automobile/car) _opetun_ ophe'txuN (s/he, it buyed it, to purchase) topic i as for: topic. I will be (come) here, today. Winyan mitawa (kin) waste my woman (wife) is nice/good sungmanitu kin sunka wan kte yelo!
Remember: _ksto_ kshto' is the female form of a statement enclitic ( _yelo_ is the male form). Topic as for: comment topic-comment structure in English wicasa hemaca As for: be-a-man : i am a such - i am a man pezutawicasa heca yelo! As for: be-a-doctor : S/he is a such! s/he's a doctor! Wakanyeza heca pi ksto!
As for: be-a-kid : They are such! "They're kids!" wakanyeza tona pi he? As for: kid : How many are? how many kids are there? Wakanyeza hena wicabluha As for: kid, those : I have them - i have children. Pezuta wicasa he e as for: be-a-doctor, that one : S/he is the one! s/he's *the* doctor!
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A complete one- word sentence with the meaning "to-be-how-many" (e.g. hena) tona pi hwo/he?_ - "They're how thesis many?" _yuha_ (s/he it has him/her/it. _unyuha_, _unyuha pi_, _luha pi_, _yuha pi_. _e_ (s/he, it is the one. _unkiye_, _unkiye pi_, _niye pi_, _e pi_. _sunkawakan_ shu'n-ka-wa-kxa'n (it-is-a-horse, lit. 'mystery/power dog _oyuspA_ (to catch/arrest. _unkoyuspa pi_, _oluspa pi_, hena) oyuspa pi_.
Yet, not only these tiny topic words like _le_, _he_ etc. Can serve as a topic but also any of those basic mini sentences we have been dealing with above! We already learned that. _wicasa_ is a complete sentence meaning "he is an adult male/a man and that "I am a man" is expressed as _wimacasa_ (about: "being-a-man-is-pertaining-to. Now, this idea can also be expressed with _wicasa_ put into the topic part phrases of an utterance: here we have to use a second word (one-word sentence) which is _heca_ he'cha (about: be-of-such-kind/be-a-such). Hence: _wicasa hemaca_ wicha'sha hema'cha. Some more words: _pezuta_ pxeju'ta (to-be-medicine) _wakanyeza_ wakxa'nyeja (to-be-a kid/child) _tona_ to'nan is a so-called 't-word' (question word) and of the same type as seen above,.
'phrases' (groups of words belonging together) in the topic part not already referred to in the comment sentence. Here, some more examples: topic as for: comment topic-comment structure in English hena wicakte As for: those : he killed them he wakte yelo! As for: t hat one : I have killed him/her/it! Hena wicayakte po (pi yo)! As for: those : you (all kill them! He unkte pi sece As for: t hat one : we might kill him/her/it? As for: t hat one : S/he, it might kill. Hena unkte pi sece As for: those : They might kill. So far, this doesn't seem to be something very important, already.
Anyway, in a sentence like _he hi_ (he arrived here) or _hena hi pi_ (they arrived here) _he/hena_ is the topic (meaning 'this summary one/these ones commented by the one-word sentence _hi_ (s/he, it/they have arrived her). So the basical topic-comment pattern is as for: T : c topic as for: comment topic-comment structure in English he wicasa As for: that one : he is an adult male/a man hena waste pi As for: t hose : They are good/nice. As for: t hose : Did they kill him/her/it? The comment sentence somehow refers to the topic to which it is related in some way. In our examples, the topic redundantly denotes an agent/patient already expressed in the one-word sentence respectively. But, please do not assume that the topic words have always to be in a somewhat defined relationship to the comment 's 'subject' etc. As our examples might insinuate. The topic part rather offers kind of a 'plate' for the comment sentence to choose from.
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Comments, all those one-word sentence words we have been dealing with up to now - see above - can be regarded as typical comments! Yet, what then are topics? Are there typical topic words, too? Yes, at least those kinds of words which are not sentences entry by themselves, like those already encountered above: _he_ and _hena_! In lakota language (just like in many other Native tongues space is devided in three areas (compare lojban _ti _ta _tu_ and _vi _va _vu_ _le_ le' - 'this one here' (within the reach of one's hands) _lena_ le-na'n - 'these here' (within the reach. And plur.) to express s/he, it and they respectively. Please be aware of that this grammatically is not necessary because redundant.