45 When Congress authorized an invasion of quebec, believing that province's people would also rise against British military control, washington reluctantly went along with it, 46 even authorizing Benedict Arnold to lead a force from Cambridge to quebec City through the wilderness of present-day maine. 47 As the siege dragged on, the matter of expiring enlistments became a matter of serious concern. 48 Washington tried to convince congress that enlistments longer than one year were necessary to build an effective fighting force, but he was rebuffed in this effort. The 1776 establishment of the continental Army only had enlistment terms of one year, a matter that would again be a problem in late 1776. 49 50 Washington finally forced the British to withdraw from Boston by putting Henry Knox's artillery on Dorchester heights overlooking the city, and preparing in detail to attack the city from Cambridge if the British tried to assault the position. 51 The British evacuated Boston and sailed away, although Washington did not know they were headed for Halifax, nova scotia. 52 Believing they were headed for New York city (which was indeed Major General William Howe's eventual destination washington rushed most of the army there. 53 Defeated at New York city edit main article: New York and New Jersey campaign Washington's success in Boston was not repeated in New York.
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There was no other serious competition for the post, although Washington did nothing to actively pursue the appointment. Massachusetts delegate john Adams nominated Washington, believing that appointing a southerner to lead what was then primarily an army of northerners would help unite the colonies. Washington reluctantly accepted, declaring "with the utmost sincerity, i do not think myself equal to the command i am honored with." 37 38 British forces evacuate the city at the end of the siege of Boston. Washington assumed command of the colonial forces outside boston on July 3, 1775, during the ongoing siege of Boston, after stopping in New York city to begin organizing military companies for its defense. 39 His first steps were to establish procedures and to weld what had begun as militia regiments into an effective fighting force. 40 he was assisted in this effort by his adjutant, Brigadier General Horatio gates, and Major General Charles lee, both of whom had significant experience serving in the British Army. 41 When inventory returns exposed a dangerous shortage of gunpowder, washington asked for new sources. British arsenals were raided (including some in the west Indies) and some manufacturing was attempted; a barely adequate supply (about.5 million pounds) was obtained by the end of 1776, mostly from France. 42 In search of heavy weapons, he sent Henry Knox on an expedition to fort Ticonderoga to retrieve cannons that had been captured there. 43 he resisted repeated calls from Congress to launch attacks against the British in Boston, calling war councils that supported the decisions against such action. 44 Before the continental navy was established in november 1775 he, without Congressional authorization, began arming a "secret navy" to prey on poorly protected British transports and supply ships.
He emphasized his legs desire for receiving written, rather than verbal, reports. He demanded repeatedly that intelligence reports be expedited, reminding his officers of those bits of intelligence he had received which had become valueless because of delay in getting them to him. He also recognized the need for developing many different sources so that their reports could be cross-checked, and so that the compromise of one source would not cut off the flow of intelligence from an important area. 33 Washington sought and obtained a "secret service fund" from the continental Congress. 34 he strongly wanted gold or silver. In accounting for the sums in his journals, he did not identify the recipients: "The names of persons who are employed within the Enemy's lines or who may fall within their power cannot be inserted." he instructed his generals to "leave no stone unturned, nor. Washington appeared at the second Continental Congress in a military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. 36 Congress created the continental Army on June 14, 1775, and discussed who should lead. Washington had the prestige, military experience, charisma and military bearing of a military leader and was known as a strong patriot; he was also popular in his home province.
Furthermore, he permanently established the principle of civilian supremacy in military affairs by voluntarily resigning his commission and disbanding his army when the war was won, rather than declaring himself presentation monarch. He also helped to overcome the distrust of a standing army by his constant reiteration that well-disciplined professional soldiers counted for twice as much as poorly trained business and led militias. 30 Intelligence edit further information: Intelligence in the American revolutionary war and Intelligence operations in the American revolutionary war george washington was a skilled manager of intelligence. He utilized agents behind enemy lines, recruited both Tory and Patriot sources, interrogated travelers for intelligence information, and launched scores of agents on both intelligence and counterintelligence missions. He was adept at deception operations and tradecraft and was a skilled propagandist. He also practiced sound operational security. 31 His main failure was missing all the signals in 1780 that Benedict Arnold was increaingly disaffected and had loyalist connections. 32 ) As an intelligence manager, washington insisted that the terms of an agent's employment and his instructions be precise and in writing.
The American officers never equaled their opponents in tactics and maneuver, and they lost most of the pitched battles. The great successes at Boston (1776 saratoga (1777 and Yorktown (1781) came from trapping the British far from base with much larger numbers of troops. 27 fourth, he took charge of training the army and providing supplies, from food to gunpowder to tents. He recruited regulars and assigned Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff, to train them, who transformed Washington's army into a disciplined and effective force. 28 The war effort and getting supplies to the troops were under the purview of Congress, but Washington pressured the congress to provide the essentials. There was never nearly enough. 29 Washington's fifth and most important role in the war effort was the embodiment of armed resistance to the Crown, serving as the representative man of the revolution. His long-term strategy was to maintain an army in the field at all times, and eventually this strategy worked. His enormous personal and political stature and his political skills kept Congress, the army, the French, the militias, and the states all pointed toward a common goal.
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The goal was always independence. When France entered the plan war, he worked closely with the soldiers it sent-they were decisive in the great victory at Yorktown in 1781. 22 Second, he provided leadership of troops against the main British forces in 177577 and again in 1781. He lost many of his battles, but he never surrendered his army during the war, and he continued to fight the British relentlessly until the war's end. Washington worked hard to develop a successful espionage system to detect British locations and plans. In 1778, he formed the culper Ring to spy on enemy movements in New York city.
In 1780 it discovered Benedict Arnold was a traitor. 23 The British intelligence system was completely fooled in 1781, unaware that Washington and the French armies were moving from the northeast to yorktown, virginia. 24 Third, he was charged selecting and guiding the generals. In June 1776, congress made its first attempt at running the war effort with the committee known as "Board of War and Ordnance succeeded by the board of War in July 1777, a committee which eventually included members of the military. 25 26 The command structure of the armed forces was a hodgepodge of Congressional appointees (and Congress sometimes made those appointments without Washington's input) with state-appointments filling the lower ranks. The results of his general staff were mixed, as some of his favorites never mastered the art of command, such as John Sullivan. Eventually, he found capable officers such as Nathanael Greene, daniel Morgan, henry Knox (chief of artillery and Alexander Hamilton (chief of staff).
11 he developed a very negative idea of the value of militia, who seemed too unreliable, too undisciplined, and too short-term compared to regulars. 12 On the other hand, his experience was limited to command of at most 1,000 men, and came only in remote frontier conditions that were far removed from the urban situations he faced during the revolution at Boston, new York, trenton and Philadelphia. 13 Political resistance edit washington in 1772 In December 1758 Washington resigned his military commission, and spent the next 16 years as a wealthy virginia plantation owner; as such he also served in the virginia house of Burgesses. Although he expressed opposition to the 1765 Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the colonies, he did not take a leading role in the growing colonial resistance until protests of the townshend Acts (enacted in 1767) became widespread. In may 1769, washington introduced a proposal, drafted by his friend george mason, calling for Virginia to boycott British goods until the Acts were repealed.
14 Parliament repealed the townshend Acts in 1770, and, for Washington at least, the crisis had passed. However, washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges"., he chaired the meeting at which the " fairfax Resolves " were adopted, which called for, among other things, the convening of a continental Congress. In August, washington attended the first Virginia convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the first Continental Congress. 16 As tensions rose in 1774, he assisted in the training of county militias in Virginia and organized enforcement of the boycott of British goods instituted by the congress. 17 18 Major roles edit general Washington, the commander in Chief, assumed five main roles during the war. First, he designed the overall strategy of the war, in cooperation with Congress.
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3 4 Washington was in the vanguard of British forces that occupied Fort Duquesne, recently abandoned by the French, in 1758. Washington played a key role in the outbreak of the French and Indian War, and then led the defense of Virginia between 17colonel of the virginia regiment. Although Washington never received a commission in the British Army, he gained valuable military, political, and leadership skills, 5 and received significant public exposure in the colonies and abroad. 6 7 he closely observed British military tactics, gaining a keen insight into their strengths and weaknesses that proved guaranteed invaluable during the revolution. He demonstrated his toughness and courage in the most difficult situations, including disasters and retreats. He developed a command presence—given his size, strength, stamina, and bravery in battle, he appeared to soldiers to be a natural leader and they followed him without question. 8 9 Washington learned to organize, train, and drill, and discipline his companies and regiments. From his observations, readings and conversations with professional officers, he learned the basics of battlefield tactics, as well as a good understanding of problems of organization and logistics. 10 he gained an understanding of overall strategy, especially in locating strategic geographical points.
Although Yorktown marked the end of significant hostilities in North America, the British still occupied New York and other cities, so washington had to maintain the army in the face of a bankrupt Congress and troops that were at times mutinous over conditions and pay. The army was formally disbanded after peace in 1783, and Washington resigned his commission story as commander-in-chief on December 23, 1783. Contents Military experience edit see also: Military career of george washington and george washington in the French and Indian War Born into a well-to-do virginia family near Fredericksburg in 1732. 1731, washington was schooled locally until the age. The early death of his father when he was 11 eliminated the possibility of schooling in England, and his mother rejected attempts to place him in the royal navy. 1 Thanks to the connection by marriage of his half-brother Lawrence to the wealthy fairfax family, washington was appointed surveyor of Culpeper county in 1749; he was just 17 years old. Washington's brother had purchased an interest in the Ohio company, a land acquisition and settlement company whose objective was the settlement of Virginia's frontier areas, including the Ohio country, territory north and west of the Ohio river. 2 Its investors also included Virginia's royal governor, robert Dinwiddie, who appointed Washington a major in the provincial militia in February 1753.
activities from late 1778 to 1780 were more diplomatic and organizational, as his army remained outside new York, watching. Sir Henry Clinton's army that occupied the city. Washington strategized with the French on how best to cooperate in actions against the British, leading to ultimately unsuccessful attempts to dislodge the British from. Newport, Rhode Island and, savannah, georgia. His attention was also drawn to the frontier war, which prompted the 1779 Continental Army expedition of, john Sullivan into upstate new York. When General Clinton sent the turncoat General Benedict Arnold to raid in Virginia, washington began to detach elements of his army to face the growing threat there. Lord Cornwallis in Virginia after campaigning in the south presented Washington with an opportunity to strike a decisive blow. Washington's army and the French army moved south to face cornwallis, and a cooperative french navy under. Admiral de Grasse successfully disrupted British attempts to control of the Chesapeake bay, completing the entrapment of Cornwallis, who surrendered after the siege of Yorktown in October 1781.
He was not usually in command of the many state militia units. In the early years of the war Washington was often in the middle of the action, first directing the. Siege of Boston to type its successful conclusion, but then losing New York city and almost losing New Jersey before winning surprising and decisive victories. Trenton and, princeton at the end of the 1776 campaign season. At the end of the year in both 17, he had to deal with expiring enlistments, since the congress had only authorized the army's existence for single years. With the 1777 establishment of a more permanent army structure and the introduction of three-year enlistments, washington built a reliable stable of experienced troops, although hard currency and supplies of all types were difficult to come. In 1777 Washington was again defeated in the defense of Philadelphia, but sent critical support. Horatio gates that made the defeat of Burgoyne at Saratoga possible. Following a difficult winter.
George, washington, biography, essay - 1963 Words
George washington (February 22, 1732 December 14, 1799) commanded the. Continental Army in the, american revolutionary war (17751783). After serving as, president of the United States (1789 to 1797 he briefly was in charge of a new army in 1798. Washington, despite his youth, played a major role in the frontier wars against the French and assignment Indians in the 1750s and 1760s. He played the leading military role in the, american revolution. When the war broke out with the. Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, congress appointed him the first commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army on June. The task he took on was enormous, balancing regional demands, competition among his subordinates, morale among the rank and file, attempts by congress to manage the army's affairs too closely, requests by state governors for support, and an endless need for resources with which.