What are the parts that do the work? When/Where to control the limbs? How to provide consistency / reliability to actions of the limbs? (called Interface - reference 5) Ideal Final Result (IFR) and Ideality: Ideal Final Result is very useful concept as it,. Gives an implementation-free description (after the problem has been solved). Focuses on functions needed (and not on the currently used processes and / or equipment).
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How to dynamize the parts? or How have the parts been dynamized (in the past)? How to control and hence automate the function? These questions have much in common with the concept of evolutionary potential - a topic discussed at length in Reference. Evolution timing is another critical issue in problem definition. The key question here is When will the evolution occur? There are no definitive answers to this question. Good pointers come from Reference 4, which describes the emergence of the administrative contradiction for a sufficiently valuable sector of the existing and prospective future customer base becomes dissatisfied jean with the current offering - figure. Figure 3: Emergence of Administrative contradiction defines the When of System evolution Timing expository Ask 5Ws to help Identify parts of a technical System :. What is the source of energy? How is the source connected to the output?
Selection and improvement of parts, iii. Dynamization of parts,. Self-development of parts Using 5Ws and an H to identify the Stage of evolution :. What is main function of the system? what parts are needed to synthesize the required book function? How to improve the parts? or How have the parts improved (in the past)?
(time of problem). Where does the harmful action or effects appear? (zone of problem). Why does the harmful action occur? (root-cause of the problem). How does the harmful action arise? Trends of evolution: The 4 Stages of Technical System evolution are;.
Question is all about broadening the problem and specifically heading back towards root causes. The process is often helped by thinking about the function that creates/leads to the problem and the presence and interactions between substances ( tool and object ) and fields (energy, enabling, acting force) present - is tool, object or field causing the problem? The how question is present to encourage us to think about the underlying causes and effects of the problem. How does the conflict arise? The how question and its relation to cause and effect plays a significant part of the Theory of Constraints problem definition methodology (2). Other Times During Problem Definition When 5Ws and an h are used: 5 Ws and an H for Harmful Effects :. Who is affected by the harmful action? What is the result of the harmful action? When does the harmful action occur?
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Try to specify inefficient useful action/interaction/effects. Clearly online identifying the time related aspects of the problem. When does the conflict occur? Is the key question here. In line with ariz thinking, if we can identify a time of the conflict, the time just before and the time just after, we have a strong basis for identifying physical contradictions which may be amenable to separation in time.
If there is a physical contradiction amenable to separation in time, the when question is the key to identifying. Again the key is relating to the ariz concept of zones of conflict. Determine what is the zone of conflict looking at the super-system, system and sub-system. The aim again is to keep in mind the triz physical contradiction solution strategies - and in particular to be looking for places/spaces where the problem does and doesnt occur. If there is a physical contradiction amenable to separation in space, the where question is the key to identifying. Ask why 5 times -. Deming : In the why-whats stopping?
When does the problem occur? Where does the problem occur? Why does the problem occur? What is root cause? How does the problem occur? How can the problem be solved?
This clearly identifies the person connected with the problem. He could be one who is using the final product or anyone in the line-up of concept-to-market or a person at any of the product Life-stages from design through manufacture, transport, use, repair and disposal. This is the type of question we ask in order to narrow the problem and focus in on key issues - as seen in the why-whats-stopping analysis. It is a good idea to keep the triz solve tools in mind when asking the what? Try to specify conflict/contradictions - as a technical contradiction or as a physical contradiction. Try to specify harmful action/interaction/effects.
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In keeping with the ask why 5 times philosophy, the schema can be broadened or narrowed multiple times. (In line with Demings statement, it would be very unlikely that we would have to repeat the why cycle more than five times to get to the root cause - in practice it will usually take less.) At the end of the process, the user. We will see an example of this schema and its 5Ws and an H relatives in action in a future entry article. Figure 2: Modified Why-Whats Stopping Analysis Problem Definition Schema. In this next section, we explore how the different triz problem solving tools should influence the following 5Ws and an H questions we ask while trying to define the right problem:. Who has the problem? What does the problem seem to be?
The tool is aimed at overcoming the highly common situation which starts with statements like the problem is and continues a few seconds later with a headlong plunge into problem solving mode. This phenomenon is one of the most important manifestations of psychological inertia. Countless situations point to the fact that the initial problem definition turns out to be anything but the right one. So, the tool takes the initial the problem is statement and forces the user to think about the broader and narrower problem. A typical schema is reproduced in Figure. Basically, you the user uses the Why? Question to broaden the problem and uses the question Whats Stopping? To narrow the question.
"How?" in an effort to find a possible answer or solution to the problem. We will therefore use the phrase "5W's and an H" first to identify the problem and then to provide a possible solution. Below we offer a compilation of "5W's and an H" as used for each of the triz stages given above. Why-Whats Stopping Analysis, first, however, as an aid to assist in our attempts to think about problem definition hierarchy, it is useful to introduce here a modified version of the Why-Whats-Stopping? Analysis tool first developed by basadur (1). The tool provides users with a structure through which to visualise an initial problem statement in the context of its broader and narrower context.
The purpose of this article is to concentrate on this aspect and to show how write our awareness of the triz solving tools should influence our search strategies during the definition stage. In the very broadest terms, triz can be divided into four main stages as shown in Figure. Figure 1: 4 Stage triz process. We will be concentrating here on the definition stage, but using the select and solve stages to help us in our quest for the right problem. By select, we mean the rules and guidelines which influence which of the triz solve tools is most relevant to a given problem situation. The principal problem definition methodology adopted in this article is based on a very simple premise - ask relevant questions until we get the answer. Deming has once said "Ask why 5 times below is a compiled list of questions one ought to ask to get the right answer.
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Apte, tata Institute of Fundamental Research, mumbai, india. Harish Shah, neilsoft Ltd., pune, india, darrell Mann. University of Bath, bath, uk, abstract, it is a commonly held view that 90 of the problem is defining what the problem. In actual fact, every time the statement or a derivative of it appears, the importance of problem definition seems to tend ever higher as a proportion of the total problem. The " 5W's and an H " and related techniques to be discussed in this article are aimed at helping paper problem (or indeed, looking at the opposite side of the coin, opportunity) owners to help in the definition process. Used in conjunction with triz, the techniques are shown to be effective in helping to find the contradictions and harmful effects crucial to successful application of the triz solving tools. This paper describes the basic triz philosophy underlying various triz tools and techniques, and the way they integrate most effectively with systematic problem definition tools. Problem Definition using triz tools: triz consists of many problem solving tools and several different ways of classifying them. The first and the main task in inventive problem solving by triz, however, still remains to be the toughest one - to identify and formulate the problem.