The revenue hike was steeper than it had been in Kheda even though the famine covered a large portion of Gujarat. After cross-examining and talking to village representatives, emphasising the potential hardship and need for non-violence and cohesion, patel initiated the struggle with a complete denial of taxes. Patel organised volunteers, camps, and an information network across affected areas. The revenue refusal was stronger than in Kheda, and many sympathy satyagrahas were undertaken across Gujarat. Despite arrests and seizures of property and land, the struggle intensified. The situation came to a head in August, when, through sympathetic intermediaries, he negotiated a settlement that included repealing the tax hike, reinstating village officials who had resigned in protest, and returning seized property and land. It was during the struggle and after the victory in Bardoli that Patel was increasingly addressed by his colleagues and followers as Sardar. As Gandhi embarked on the dandi salt March, patel was arrested in the village of Ras and was put on trial without witnesses, with no lawyer or journalists allowed to attend.
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He established refugee centres across the methodology district, mobilized volunteers, and hospital arranged for supplies of food, medicines, and clothing, as well as emergency funds from the government and the public. When Gandhi was in prison, patel was asked by members of Congress to lead the satyagraha in Nagpur in 1923 against a law banning the raising of the Indian flag. He organised thousands of volunteers from all over the country to take part in processions of people violating the law. Patel negotiated a settlement obtaining the release of all prisoners and allowing nationalists to hoist the flag in public. Later that year, patel and his allies uncovered evidence suggesting that the police were in league with local dacoits (devar Baba) in the borsad taluka even as the government prepared to levy a major tax for fighting dacoits in the area. More than 6,000 villagers assembled to hear Patel speak in support of proposed agitation against the tax, which was deemed immoral and unnecessary. He organised hundreds of Congressmen, sent instructions, and received information from across the district. Every village in the taluka resisted payment of the tax and prevented the seizure of property and land. After a protracted struggle, the government withdrew the tax. Historians believe that one of Patel's key achievements was the building of cohesion and trust amongst the different castes and communities, which had been divided along socio-economic lines. In April 1928 Patel returned to the independence struggle from his municipal duties in Ahmedabad when Bardoli suffered from a serious double predicament of a famine and a steep tax hike.
Patel also supported Gandhi's controversial suspension of resistance in the essay wake of the Chauri Chaura incident. In Gujarat he worked extensively in the following years against alcoholism, untouchability, and caste discrimination, as well as for the empowerment of women. In the congress, he was a resolute supporter of Gandhi against his Swarajist critics. Patel was elected Ahmedabad's municipal president in 1922, 1924, and 1927; during his terms, he oversaw improvements in infrastructure: the supply of electricity was increased, and drainage and sanitation systems were extended throughout the city. The school system underwent major reforms. He fought for the recognition and payment of teachers employed in schools established by nationalists (independent of British control) and even took on sensitive hindu muslim issues. Patel personally led relief efforts in the aftermath of the torrential rainfall of 1927 that caused major floods in the city and in the Kheda district, and great destruction of life and property.
The government agreed to negotiate with Patel resume and decided to suspend the payment of taxes for a year, even scaling back the rate. Patel emerged as a hero to gujaratis. In 1920 he was elected president of the newly formed Gujarat Pradesh Congress Committee ; he would serve as its president until 1945. Citation needed patel supported Gandhi's non-cooperation movement and toured the state to recruit more than 300,000 members and raise over. . 1.5 million in funds. Helping organise bonfires in Ahmedabad in which British goods were burned, patel threw in all his English-style clothes. Along with his daughter Mani and son Dahya, he switched completely to wearing khadi, the locally produced cotton clothing.
Though his decision was made on the spot, patel later said that his desire and commitment came after intense personal contemplation, as he realised he would have to abandon his career and material ambitions. Satyagraha in Gujarat edit see also: Kheda satyagraha and Bardoli satyagraha supported by congress volunteers Narhari parikh, mohanlal Pandya, and Abbas tyabji, vallabhbhai patel began a village-by-village tour in the Kheda district, documenting grievances and asking villagers for their support for a statewide revolt. Patel emphasised the potential hardships and the need for complete unity and non-violence in the face of provocation. He received an enthusiastic response from virtually every village. When the revolt was launched and tax revenue withheld, the government sent police and intimidation squads to seize property, including confiscating barn animals and whole farms. Patel organised a network of volunteers to work with individual villages, helping them hide valuables and protect themselves against raids. Thousands of activists and farmers were arrested, but Patel was not. The revolt evoked sympathy and admiration across India, including among pro-British Indian politicians.
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He had made a pact with his brother Vithalbhai to support his entry into politics in the bombay presidency, while patel story remained in Ahmedabad to provide for the family. 14 Fight for self-rule edit At the urging of his friends, patel ran in the election for the post of sanitation commissioner of Ahmedabad in 1917 and won. While often clashing with British officials on civic issues, he did not show any interest in politics. Upon hearing of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, he joked to the lawyer and political activist, ganesh Vasudev mavlankar, that "Gandhi would ask you if you know how to shift pebbles from wheat. And that is supposed to bring independence." A subsequent meeting with Gandhi, in October 1917 fundamentally changed Patel and led him to join the Indian independence struggle. In September 1917, patel had already a speech in Borsad, encouraging Indians nationwide to sign Gandhi's petition demanding Swaraj self-rule from Britain.
A month later, he met Gandhi for the first time at the gujarat Political Conference senior in Godhra. On Gandhi's encouragement, patel became the secretary of the gujarat Sabha, a public body that would become the gujarati arm of the Indian National Congress. Patel now energetically fought against veth the forced servitude of Indians to europeans and organised relief efforts in the wake of plague and famine in Kheda. The Kheda peasants' plea for exemption from taxation had been turned down by British authorities. Gandhi endorsed waging a struggle there, but could not lead it himself due to his activities in Champaran. When Gandhi asked for a gujarati activist to devote himself completely to the assignment, patel volunteered, much to gandhi's delight.
In keeping with concerns for his family's honour, patel allowed Vithalbhai to go in his place. In 1909 Patel's wife Jhaverba was hospitalised in Bombay (now Mumbai ) to undergo major surgery for cancer. Her health suddenly worsened and, despite successful emergency surgery, she died in the hospital. Patel was given a note informing him of his wife's demise as he was cross-examining a witness in court. According to witnesses, patel read the note, pocketed it, and continued his cross-examination and won the case.
He broke the news to others only after the proceedings had ended. Patel decided against marrying again. He raised his children with the help of his family and sent them to English-language schools in Mumbai. At the age of 36 he journeyed to England and enrolled at the middle temple Inn in London. Completing a 36-month course in 30 months, patel finished at the top of his class despite having had no previous college background. 12 Returning to India, patel settled in Ahmedabad and became one of the city's most successful barristers. Wearing European-style clothes and sporting urbane mannerisms, he became a skilled bridge player. Patel nurtured ambitions to expand his practice and accumulate great wealth and to provide his children with a modern education.
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Patel also cared for a friend suffering from the bubonic plague when it swept across Gujarat. When Patel proposal himself came down with the disease, he immediately sent his family to safety, left his home, and moved into an isolated house in Nadiad (by other accounts, patel spent this time in a dilapidated temple there, he recovered slowly. Patel practised law in Godhra, borsad, and Anand while taking on the financial burdens of his homestead in Karamsad. Patel was the first chairman and founder of "Edward Memorial High School" Borsad, today known as Jhaverbhai dajibhai patel High School. When he had saved enough for his trip to England and applied for a pass and a ticket, they were addressed to "V. . Patel at the home of his elder brother Vithalbhai, who had the same initials as Vallabhai. Having once nurtured a similar hope to study in England, vithalbhai remonstrated his younger brother, saying that it would be disreputable for an older brother to follow his younger brother.
A popular anecdote recounts that he lanced his own painful boil without hesitation, even as the barber charged with doing it trembled. When Patel passed his matriculation at the relatively essay late age of 22, he was generally regarded by his elders as an unambitious man destined for a commonplace job. Patel himself, though, harboured a plan to study to become a lawyer, work and save funds, travel to England, and become a barrister. Patel spent years away from his family, studying on his own with books borrowed from other lawyers, passing his examinations within two years. Fetching his wife Jhaverba from his parents' home, patel set up his household in Godhra and was called to the bar. During the many years it took him to save money, patel now an advocate earned a reputation as a fierce and skilled lawyer. The couple had a daughter, maniben, in 1904 and a son, dahyabhai, in 1906.
India. His commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet "Iron Man of India". 3 he is also remembered as the "patron saint of India's civil servants" for having established the modern all-India services system. He is also called the "Unifier of India". 4 In 2014, the government of India introduced a commemoration of Patel, held annually on his birthday, 31 October, and known as Rashtriya ekta diwas (National Unity day). Contents Early life edit painting of Sardar Vallabhai patel as deputy prime minister that appeared in the 1948 issue of Chandamama magazine patel's date of birth was never officially recorded; Patel entered it as 31 October on his matriculation examination papers. He belonged to the leuva patel Patidar community of Central Gujarat, although the leuva patels and Kadava patels have also claimed him as one of their own. 6 Patel travelled to attend schools in Nadiad, petlad, and Borsad, living self-sufficiently with other boys. He reputedly cultivated a stoic character.
Patel was born and raised in the countryside. 2, he was a successful lawyer. He subsequently organised peasants from. Kheda, borsad, and, bardoli in Gujarat in non-violent civil disobedience against the British Raj, becoming one of the most influential leaders in Gujarat. He rose to the leadership of the Indian National Congress, organising the party for elections in 19 while promoting the quit India movement. As the first Home minister and Deputy Prime minister of India, patel organised relief efforts for refugees fleeing from Punjab and Delhi and worked to restore peace. He led the task of forging a united India, successfully integrating into the newly independent nation those British colonial provinces that had been "allocated" reviews to India.
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Vallabhbhai jhaverbhai patel ( 15 December 1950 popularly known. Sardar, patel, was the first, deputy Prime minister of India. He was an Indian barrister and statesman, a senior leader of the. Indian National Congress and a founding father of the. Republic of India who played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and guided remote its integration into a united, independent nation. 1, in, india and elsewhere, he was often called. Sardar, chief in, hindi, urdu, and, persian. He acted as de facto, supreme commander-in-chief of, indian army during the political integration of India and the. Indo-pakistani war of 1947.