5 Dyslexia is separate from reading difficulties caused by hearing or vision problems or by insufficient teaching. 3 Treatment involves adjusting teaching methods to meet the person's needs. 2 While not curing the underlying problem, it may decrease the degree of symptoms. 9 Treatments targeting vision are not effective. 10 Dyslexia is the most common learning disability and occurs in all areas of the world. 3 11 It affects 37 of the population, 3 6 however, up to 20 may have some degree of symptoms. 12 While dyslexia is more often diagnosed in men, 3 it has been suggested that it affects men and women equally.
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4, problems may include essay difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. 4 8, word often these difficulties are first noticed at school. 3, when someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. 4, the difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have a normal desire to learn. 4, dyslexia is believed to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Some cases run in families. 4, it often occurs in people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd) and is associated with similar difficulties with numbers. 3, it may begin in adulthood as the result of a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or dementia. 2 The underlying mechanisms of dyslexia are problems within the brain 's language processing. 4 Dyslexia is diagnosed through a series of tests of memory, spelling, vision, and reading skills.
"vsa the International Organization on Art and Disability". Retrieved April 30, 2013. "Smithsonian Institution Profile page, national Museum of American History". a b "Arts Access gps Australia". Retrieved may 1, 2013. Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. 2 7, different people are affected to varying degrees.
A polemic in Place of an Editorial". Serpentine gallery; Edited Aaron Williamson. lennard., davis (2011). "The disability paradox: Ghettoisation of the visual". "National Disability Arts Collection archive". National Disability Arts Collection archive. Retrieved ju, gosling (2006).
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Missing or empty url ( help ) a b Bragg, melvyn (11 December 2007). "The last remaining avant-garde movement". Retrieved 18 September 2010. marc, quinn (15 September 2005). "Marc quinn's Alison Lapper Pregnant unveiled in Trafalgar Square". a b c "What is Disability Arts?".
"What is Disability Arts?". a b c Allan, sutherland. "Disability Arts Chronology: ". Retrieved 27 February 2012. Ollie, representing chase (15 December 2008). "ldaf: so much more than a charity case". "Disability discrimination Act 1995".
From the local to the international, "bodies of work" explores innovative forms of artistic expression, derived from unique bodies and minds, that explore the disability experience, advance the rights of disabled people, and widen society's understanding of what it means to be human. 19 Artists who identify as disabled and make work about disability are growing in numbers, as are curators who identify as disabled and curate exhibitions on disability. Katherine Ott is a curator at the national Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution who has curated a number of exhibits on the history of the body, disability, ethnic and folk medicine, integrative and alternative medicine, ophthalmology, plastic surgery and dermatology, medical technology. 20 development of the concept of disability arts in other countries edit non-profit, government-funded organizations dedicated to providing resources and support towards activities in disability art are numerous in countries like australia and Canada. In Australia, such organizations include Arts Access Australia (peak body accessible Arts (nsw dadaa (wa arts Access Victoria (VIC) and more. 21 In Canada, organizations include the Indefinite Arts Centre (Calgary arts disability network manitoba, kickstart Arts - disability arts and culture and Tangled Gallery, showcasing Disability Art in Toronto.
22 These organizations work to increase opportunities and access for people with disability as artists, arts-workers, participants and audiences. They offer services to their members, such as representation and advocacy, facilitation and development, information and advice, grants and more. Many of these organizations use the social model of disability, thus they use the term disability to refer to barriers, rather than medical conditions or impairments. They might categorize people with disability, to mean anyone with sensory or physical impairments, hidden impairments, intellectual impairments, learning difficulties or mental health conditions. These organizations recognise and value the culture and language of the deaf community, and include them within this definition in recognition of the similar barriers that many deaf people face accessing the arts. 21 References edit "Disability Arts. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012. "This is based on an assumption that nothing is written about Marc quinn being disabled at the point of make this work". .
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17 The development of disability arts in the summary usa is also tied to several non-profit organizations such as Creative growth in oakland, ca, that serves adult artists with developmental, mental and physical disabilities, providing a professional studio environment for artistic development, gallery exhibition and representation. 18 Organizations with similar mandates in the bay area include Creativity Explored in San Francisco, and niad art Center in Richmond adart. Niad art Center - nurturing lined Independence through Artistic development (formerly registered as National Institute of Art disabilities) - was established in 1982 by the late Florence ludins-Katz and the late Elias Katz, phD. Many other organizations with similar visions and mandates can be found across the country. Currently, the leading scholars in disability arts in the usa include michael davidson, lennard davis, rosemarie garland-Thomson, ann Fox, jessica cooley, joseph Grigely, georgina Kleege, petra kuppers, simi linton, Ann Millett-Gallant, Amanda cachia, david. T mitchell, carrie sandahl, susan Schweik, tobin siebers and Sharon. Snyder, who write about a range of topics within disability arts, such as performance, literature, aesthetics, visual art, music, art history, theatre, film, dance, curatorial studies, and more. Bodies of Work: Network of Disability Arts culture (including artists and organizations) is one of the leading disability arts festivals occurring in Chicago every few years, whose art illuminates the disability experience.
3 This debate and subsequent article set in motion a change for many people to recognise that the new generation of disabled people and artists did not feel it necessary to control the term disability arts but to open it out for a wider view. Very few people are aware of disability as a topic of art, 14 mainly due to the lack of accessible and cohesive academic work and publications around the subjects of disability art and the disability arts movement. It has yet to enter into the art curriculum or establish itself as a strongly recognised essay concept in the arts so development of the subject needs much more work for it to justify its place as a relevant term long term in the arts. On the other hand, in some instances, artists, curators or theorists who identify as disabled and make, curate or write about disability in their creative practices feel ambivalent about this category. In some circles disability art is still promoted as "art made by disabled people that reflects the experience of disability." This is most notably the line taken by ndaca co-op, 15 which is predominantly made up of members who were key to the development. Although it is more commonly accepted that non-disabled people can make valid disability art, even by people that strongly align themselves with the disability arts movement. 16 development of the concept of disability arts in the United States edit vsa, (previously very Special Arts the international organization on arts and disability in the United States, was founded more than 35 years ago when? by Ambassador jean Kennedy Smith to provide arts and education opportunities for people with disabilities and increase access to the arts for all. With 52 international affiliates and a network of nationwide affiliates, vsa is providing arts and education programming for youth and adults with disabilities around the world.
the disability film Festival in London in 1999, 11 both of which looked at work by disabled people as well as disability arts. Disabled people's politics in Britain was changed by the disability discrimination Act of 1995. 12 In the subsequent years as people adapted to the protection of legislation a new wave of politics entered in the disability arts movement. In 2004 the revised Disability discrimination Act signified the end of the domination of art based on discrimination politics in the disability arts movement. A new generation of disabled people were less political 7 and carried an agenda of integration. This combined with the carers movement highlighted a change in attitude that acknowledged the work of the disability arts movement to claim the term "disability art" but showed a movement away from the idea that only disabled people could make disability art. It began to be recognised that disability art needs to be "supported by society itself and not just by disabled people". 13 In 2007 the london Disability Arts Forum held a debate at the tate modern on the motion 'Should disability and deaf art be dead and buried in the 21st Century?' produced in response to arts cuts from the Arts council faced by disabled-led arts. This debate has become significant in the way melvin Bragg's article highlighted how disability art like marc quinn's sculpture Alison Lapper Pregnant raise the profile of disability in the arts.
Context of disability art in the disability arts movement edit, disability art is a concept which was developed out of the disability arts movement. 7, in the disability arts movement disability art stood for "art made by disabled people which reflects the experience of disability." 8, to be making disability art in the disability arts movement it is conditional thesis on being a disabled person. Development of the concept of disability art in Britain edit, the development of disability art began in the 1970s / 80s as a result of the new political activism of the disabled peoples' movement. 7 The exact date the term came into use is currently unverified, although the first use of the term in the disability Arts Chronology is 1986. 9 During this period the term "disability art" in the disability arts movement has been retrospectively agreed to mean "art made by disabled people which reflects the experience of disability". 10 As the movement and term developed, the disability arts movement began to expand from what mainly started out as disabled people's cabaret to all art forms. The disability arts movement began to grow year on year and was at its height during the late 1990s.
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Disability art or disability arts is any art, theatre, fine arts, film, writing, music that takes disability as its theme or whose context relates to disability. 1, contents, meaning edit, disability arts is an area of art where the context of the art takes on disability as its theme. Disability art is about exploring the conceptual ideas and physical realities of what is to be disabled or concepts relating to the word. Context edit, disability art is different from, disability in best the arts which refers more to the active participation or representation of disabled people in the arts rather than the context of the work being about disability. Disability art does not require the maker of the art to be disabled (see disability Arts in the disability Arts movement for the exception) nor does art made by a disabled person automatically become disability art just because it was a disabled person that made. An example of disability art by a non-disabled person: Alison Lapper Pregnant, 2005, marc quinn 2 is disability art 3 because of its context as he reveals the concept of the work was to make "the ultimate statement about disability". An example of disability art by a disabled person: effective, defective, creative, 2000, yinka shonibare, shows photos of foetuses from women deemed to be at risk of delivering a defective baby, 5 therefore looking at the relationship of defectiveness and disability. An example of art made by a disabled person that is not disability art: Dorothea, 1995, Chuck Close ; relates to his "strict adherence to the self-imposed rules that have guided his art" and "formal analysis and methodological reconfiguration of the human face" 6 therefore.