45 If the suppressed evidence became public, hundreds more phone hacking victims might be able to take legal action against News International newspapers and might lead to police inquiries being re-opened. 52 When Andy coulson was editor of the news of the world, journalists there openly engaged private investigators for illegal phone hacking and raised invoices that itemised illegal acts. 45 everybody at the news of the world knew what was going on and knew that there was no public interest defense for phone hacking. The way investigations had been pursued raised serious questions about the metropolitan Police, the Crown Prosecution Service, and the courts which, "faced with evidence of conspiracy and systemic illegal actions. Agreed to seal the evidence." rather than make it public. 53 The met held evidence that thousands of mobile phones had been hacked into by agents of the news of the world and that Members of Parliament, including cabinet ministers, were among the victims. 52 "The metropolitan Police took the decision not to inform all the individuals whose phones had been targeted and the Crown Prosecution Service decided not to take news Group executives to court." 45 News International executives had misled a parliamentary select committee, the Press Complaints.
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45 In 2009 the pcc held another inquiry, to see whether they were misled by the news of the world rents in 2007, and if there was any evidence that phone hacking had taken place since then. It concluded it had not been misled and that there was no evidence of ongoing phone hacking. 46 This report and its conclusions were withdrawn on, two days after it was revealed that Milly dowler's phone had been hacked. Renewed investigations edit main article: News of the world phone hacking scandal investigations It was reported that the news of the world may have hacked the phones of relatives of 7/7 attack victims (survivors pictured aboard one of the bombed Underground trains) After the. Nick davies and other journalists from The guardian, and eventually other newspapers, however continued to examine evidence from court cases and use Freedom of Information Act 2000 requests to find evidence to the contrary. 50 51 The guardian July rural 2009 reports edit a small number of victims of phone hacking engaged solicitors and made civil claims for invasion of privacy. By march 2010, news International had spent over 2 million settling court cases with victims of phone hacking. As information about these claims leaked out, The guardian continued to follow the story. On 8, the newspaper published three articles alleging that: News Group Newspapers, ngn, a subsidiary of News International, agreed to large settlements with hacking victims, including Gordon taylor. The settlements included gagging provisions to prevent release of evidence that ngn journalists had used criminal methods to get stories. "News Group then persuaded the court to seal the file on taylor's case to prevent all public access, even though it contained prima facie evidence of criminal activity." 52 That evidence included documents seized in raids by the Information Commissioner's Office as well.
In March 2007, a senior aide to rupert Murdoch told a parliamentary committee that a "rigorous internal investigation" found no evidence of widespread hacking at the news legs of the world. After goodman and Mulcaire pleaded guilty, a breach of privacy claim was started by gordon taylor, chief executive of the Professional footballers Association who was represented by his solicitor Mark lewis. That claim settled for a payment of 700,000 including legal costs. 41 James Murdoch agreed the settlement. 42 pcc investigations edit The Press Complaints Commission, pcc, is the organisation charged with self-regulation of the newspaper and magazine industry in Britain. The pcc's inquiry into phone hacking in 2007 concluded that the practice should stop but that "there is a legitimate place for the use of subterfuge when there are grounds in the public interest to use it and it is not possible to obtain information. The pcc opted not to question Andy coulson on the grounds that he had left the industry, and not to question any other journalist or executive on the paper, apart from Myler, who had no knowledge of what had been going on there before his. The pcc's subsequent report failed to uncover any evidence of any phone hacking by any newspaper beyond that revealed at goodman's trial.
All this material was taken to Scotland Yard. In August 2006, goodman apple and Mulcaire were arrested by the metropolitan Police, and later charged with hacking the telephones of database members of the royal family by accessing voicemail messages, an offence under section 79 of the regulation of Investigatory powers Act 2000. 37 The news of the world had paid Mulcaire 104,988 for his services. In addition, goodman had paid Mulcaire 12,300 in cash between 9 november 2005 and, using the code name Alexander on his expenses sheet for him. 38 The court heard that Mulcaire had also hacked into the messages of supermodel Elle macpherson, publicist Max Clifford, mp simon Hughes, football agent sky andrew, and Gordon taylor. 33 On, both goodman and Mulcaire pleaded guilty to the charges and were sentenced to four and six months imprisonment respectively. 39 On the same day, andy coulson resigned as editor of the news of the world, while insisting that he had no knowledge of any illegal activities.
29 The Prince and Bradby concluded it was likely that their voicemails were being accessed. 30 The metropolitan Police set up an investigation under Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke reporting to Assistant Commissioner Andy hayman, commander of the Specialist Operations directorate, which included royal protection. 31 32 by january 2006 Clarke's team had concluded that the compromised voice mail accounts belonged to Prince william's aides, not the Prince himself, and that there was an "unambiguous trail" to Clive goodman, the news of the world royal reporter, and to Glenn Mulcaire. 33 The detectives put goodman and Mulcaire under surveillance and, on, searched goodman's desk at the news of the world and raided Mulcaire's home. There they seized "11,000 pages of handwritten notes listing nearly 4,000 celebrities, politicians, sports stars, police officials and crime victims whose phones may have been hacked." 34 The names included eight members of the royal family and their staff. There were dozens of notebooks, two computers containing 2,978 complete or partial mobile phone numbers and 91 pin codes, plus 30 tape recordings made by mulcaire. Significantly, there were at least three names of News of the world journalists other than goodman and a recording of Mulcaire instructing a journalist how to hack into private voice mail.
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The cused authorities of being too 'frightened' to tackle journalists." 26 The newspaper with the highest number of requests was the daily mail with 952 transactions by 58 journalists; the news henry of the world came fifth in the table, with 182 transactions from 19 journalists. 22 The daily mail rejected the accusations within the report insisting it only used private investigators to confirm public information, such as dates of birth. 22 Operation Glade edit learning that Steve whittamore was obtaining information from the police national computer, the Information Commissioner contacted the metropolitan Police and the met's anti-corruption unit initiated Operation Glade. 13 Whittamore's detailed records identified 27 different journalists as having commissioned him to acquire confidential information for which they paid him tens of thousands of pounds. Invoices submitted to news International "sometimes made explicit reference to obtaining a target's details from their phone number or their vehicle registration." 24 Between February 2004 and April 2005, the Crown Prosecution Service charged ten men working for private detective agencies with crimes relating.
No journalists were charged. 28 Whittamore, boyall, and two others pleaded guilty in April 2005. According to ico head Richard Thomas, "each pleaded guilty yet, despite the extent and the frequency of their admitted criminality, each was conditionally discharged for two years, raising important questions for public policy." small : royal phone hacking scandal edit main article: News of the world. Following the publication, the Prince and Bradby met to try to figure out how the details of their arrangement had been leaked, as only two other people were aware. Prince william noted that another equally improbable leak had recently taken place regarding an appointment he had made with a knee surgeon.
Operation Motorman edit In 2002, under the title Operation Motorman, the Information Commissioner's Office, 21 raided the offices of various newspaper and private investigators, looking for details of personal information kept on unregistered computer databases. The operation uncovered numerous invoices addressed to newspapers and magazines, which detailed prices for the provision of personal information. 305 journalists, working for at least 30 publications, were identified as purchasing confidential information from private investigators. 6 22 The ico raided a private investigator named John boyall, whose specialty was acquiring information from confidential databases. Glenn Mulcaire had been boyall's assistant, until the autumn of 2001 when the news of the world's assistant editor, Greg Miskiw gave him a full-time contract to do work for the newspaper. 13 When the ico raided boyall's premises in november 2002 they seized documents that led them to the premises of another private investigator, Steve whittamore.
23 24 There they found "more than 13,000 requests for confidential information from newspapers and magazines." 13 18 This established that confidential information was illegally acquired from telephone companies, the Driver vehicle licensing Agency and the police national Computer. "Media, especially newspapers, insurance companies and local authorities chasing council tax arrears all appear in the sales ledger" of the agency. 23 Whittamore's network gave him access to confidential records at telephone companies, banks, post offices, hotels, theatres, and prisons, including bt group, crédit lyonnais, goldman Sachs, hang Seng Bank, glen Parva prison, and Stocken prison. 24 Although the ico issued two reports, "What price privacy?" in may 2006 and "What price privacy now?" in December 2006, much of the information obtained through Operation Motorman was not made public. 23 25 Although there was evidence of many people being engaged in illegal activity, relatively few were questioned. Operation Motorman's lead investigator said in 2006 that "his team were told not to interview journalists involved.
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13 15, fillery had reportedly used his relationship with Alex Marunchak to arrange for private investigator Glenn Mulcaire, then doing work for News of the lined world, to obtain confidential information about Detective chief Superintendent david cook, one of the police officers investigating the murder. Mulcaire obtained cook's home address, his internal Metropolitan police payroll number, his date of birth and figures for his mortgage payments as well as physically following him and his family. Attempts to access cook's voicemail and that of his wife, and possibly hack his computer and intercept his post were also suspected. 18 Documents reportedly held by Scotland Yard show that "Mulcaire did this on the instructions of Greg Miskiw, assistant editor at News of the world and a close friend of Marunchak." The metropolitan Police service handled this apparent attempt by agents of the news. "Scotland Yard took no further action, apparently reflecting the desire of Dick fedorcio, director of Public roles Affairs and Internal Communication for the met who had a close working relationship with Brooks, to avoid unnecessary friction with the newspaper." 18 no one was charged with illegal. 19 20 Fillery was convicted for child pornography offences in 2003. 16 Upon rees' release from prison in 2005, he immediately resumed his investigative work for the news of the world, where Andy coulson had succeeded Rebekah Brooks as editor.
Between 19, several were convicted for crimes including drug distribution, the theft of nursing drugs, child pornography, planting evidence, corruption, and perverting the course of justice. Jonathan rees and his partner Sid Fillery, a former police officer, were also under suspicion for the murder of a private investigator named Daniel Morgan. The mps undertook an investigation of rees, entitled Operation Nigeria, and tapped his telephone. Substantial evidence was accumulated that rees was purchasing information from improper sources and that, amongst others, Alex Marunchak of the news of the world was paying him up to 150,000 a year for doing. 13 Jonathan rees reportedly bought information from former and serving police officers, customs officers, a vat inspector, bank employees, burglars, and from blaggers who would telephone the Inland revenue, the dvla, banks and phone companies, and deceive them into releasing confidential information. 11 rees then sold the information to the news of the world, the daily mirror, the sunday mirror and the sunday times. 14 The Operation Nigeria bugging ended in September 1999 and rees was arrested when he was heard planning to plant drugs on a woman so that her husband could win custody of their child. 13 15 rees was convicted in 2000 and served a five-year prison sentence. 13 16 Other individuals associated with rees who were taped during Operation Nigeria, including Detective constable austin Warnes, former detective duncan Hanrahan, former Detective constable martin King and former Detective constable tom Kingston, were prosecuted and jailed for various offences unrelated to phone hacking.
leveson Inquiry. Over the course of his testimony, rupert Murdoch admitted that a cover-up had taken place within the news of the world to hide the scope of the phone hacking. 3 On, a parliamentary select committee report concluded that Murdoch "exhibited wilful blindness to what was going on in his companies and publications" and stated that he was "not a fit person to exercise the stewardship of a major international company". 4 On, channel 4 News broadcast a secret tape in which Murdoch dismissively claims that investigators were "totally incompetent" and acted over "next to nothing" and excuses his papers' actions as "part of the culture of Fleet Street ". 5 Contents Early investigations, 1990s2005 edit by 2002, "an organised trade in confidential personal information" had developed in Britain and was widely used by the British newspaper industry. 6 7 Illegal means of gaining information used included hacking the private voicemail accounts on mobile phones, hacking into computers, making false statements to officials, entrapment, blackmail, burglaries, theft of mobile phones and making payments to public officials. Operation Nigeria edit Private investigators who were illegally providing information to the news of the world were also engaged in a variety of other illegal activities.
Rupert Murdoch led to several high-profile resignations, including that of Murdoch as remote News Corporation director, murdoch's son. James as executive chairman, dow Jones chief executive, les Hinton, news International legal manager, tom Crone, and chief executive. The commissioner of London's, metropolitan Police service (mps sir paul Stephenson, also resigned. Advertiser boycotts led to the closure of the. News of the world on, after 168 years of publication. Public pressure shortly forced News Corporation to cancel its proposed takeover of the British satellite broadcaster. The prime minister, david Cameron announced on that a public inquiry, known as the. Leveson Inquiry, would look into phone hacking and police bribery by the. News of the world, consider the wider culture and ethics of the British newspaper industry and that the.
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The, news International phone-hacking scandal is a controversy involving the now defunct. News of the world and other British newspapers published. News International, a subsidiary of, news Corporation. Employees of the newspaper were accused of engaging in phone hacking, police bribery, and exercising improper influence in the pursuit of stories. Whilst investigations conducted from 2005 to 2007 appeared to show that the paper's phone hacking activities were limited to celebrities, politicians, and members of the. British royal Family, in July 2011 it was revealed that the phones of murdered schoolgirl. Milly dowler, relatives of deceased British soldiers, and victims plan of the london bombings had also been hacked. The resulting public outcry against News Corporation and its owner.