It must take itself seriously for the public to take. The old superstition about fiction being "wicked" has doubtless died out in England; but the spirit of it lingers in a certain oblique regard directed toward any story which does not more or less admit that it is only a joke. Even the most jocular novel feels in some degree the weight of the proscription that was formerly directed against literary levity; the jocularity does not always succeed in passing for gravity. It is still expected, though perhaps people are ashamed to say it, that a production which is after all only a "make believe" (for what else is a "story"?) shall be in some degree apologetic-shall renounce the pretension of attempting really to compete with life. This, of course, any sensible wide-awake story declines to do, for it quickly perceives that the tolerance granted to it on such a condition is only an attempt to stifle it, disguised in the form of generosity. The old evangelical hostility to the novel, which was as explicit as it was narrow, and which regarded it as little less favourable to our immortal part than a stage-play, was in reality far less insulting. The only reason for the existence of a novel is that it does compete with life. When it ceases to compete as the canvas of the painter competes, it will have arrived at a very strange pass.
Henry james Sumner maine, wikipedia
Only a short time ago it might have been supposed that the English novel was not what the French resume call discutable. It had no air of having a theory, a conviction, a consciousness of itself behind it-of being the expression of an artistic faith, the result of choice and comparison. I do not say it was necessarily the worse for that; it would take much more courage than I possess to intimate that the form of the novel, as Dickens and Thackeray (for instance) saw it had any taint of incompleteness. It was, however, naïf (if I may help myself out with another French word and, evidently, if it is destined to suffer in any way for having lost its naïveté it has learning now an idea of making sure of the corresponding advantages. During the period I have alluded to there was a comfortable, good-humoured feeling abroad that a novel is a novel, as a pudding is a pudding, and that this was the end. But within a year or two, for some reason or other, there have been signs of returning animation-the era of discussion would appear to have been to a certain extent opened. Art lives upon discussion, upon experiment, upon curiosity, upon variety of attempt, upon the exchange of views and the comparison of standpoints; and there is a presumption that those times when no one has anything particular to say about it, and has no reason. The successful application of any art is a delightful spectacle, but the theory, too, is interesting; and though there is a great deal of the latter without the former, i suspect there has never been a genuine success that has not had a latent core. Discussion, suggestion, formulation, these things are fertilizing when they are frank and sincere. Besant has set an excellent example in saying what he thinks, for his part, about the way in which fiction should be written, as well as about the way in which it should be published; for his view of the "art carried on into. Other labourers in the same field will doubtless take up the argument, they will give it the light of their experience, and the effect will surely be to make our interest in the novel a little more what it had for some time threatened.
"The Art of Fiction" by henry james. The art of fiction by, henry, business james, published in, longman's Magazine 4 (September 1884 and reprinted. Partial Portraits (Macmillan, 1888) ; paragraphing and capitalization follow the library of America edition. I should not have affixed so comprehensive a title to these few remarks, necessarily wanting in any completeness, upon a subject the full consideration of which would carry us far, did I not seem to discover a pretext for my temerity in the interesting pamphlet. Besant's lecture at the royal Institution-the original form of his pamphlet-appears to indicate that many persons are interested in the art of fiction and are not indifferent to such remarks as those who practise it may attempt to make about. I am therefore anxious not to lose the benefit of this favourable association, and to edge in a few words under cover of the attention which. Besant is sure to have excited. There is something very encouraging in his having put into form certain of his ideas on the mystery of story-telling. It is a proof of life and curiosity-curiosity on the part of the brotherhood of novelists, as well as on the part of their readers.
Technically his third novel (though the early watch and Ward, published in 1871, is by general agreement unworthy of mention it represents a quantum leap in sophistication and moral complexity over Roderick hudson and The American. Thematically continuous with daisy miller in that it treats the perils of an innocent American woman abroad, the novel probes the psychology of its heroine, isabel Archer, to infinitely greater depths than does the earlier novella. The reader first encounters Isabel Archer at the English country house of the touchetts. Isabels aunt, lydia touchett, has brought her from the United States after the death of Isabels father. Pursued by the feckless British aristocrat Lord Warburton and the crude American Caspar goodwood, Isabel is also admired by her invalid cousin, ralph touchett, who gives her an enormous bequest from his fathers estate. While visiting her aunt in Italy, isabel meets Madame merle, an elegant, cultured listing woman who maintains a respectable life by imposing on the hospitality of her wealthy acquaintances. Madame merle introduces Isabel to gilbert Osmond, an American expatriate).
Daisy contracts the roman fever (malaria, one presumes) and dies shortly thereafter. Belatedly, winterbourne realizes that he had done daisy an injustice by believing the worst of her, and he assuages his guilt by returning to geneva, where he is, depending on which reports one believes, either engaged in study or involved with a very clever foreign. The allegory and the moral situation in daisy miller are simple enough. What remains ambiguous, as it does so often in James s work, is the ending. What is one to make of the contradictory reports of Winterbournes life in Geneva? How is one to interpret his expressed intention to return to the United States in the wake of daisys death, and then his not doing so? The interpretive dilemma at the end, with all its moral and psychological ramifications, appropriately forecasts the characteristic difficulties involving plot and character in virtually all James s future fiction. The portrait of a lady first published: Type of work: novel a young American heiress traveling in Europe is duped into marrying a cultured but passionless American expatriate; she discovers her mistake and is confronted by the dilemma of what to make of the marriage. The portrait of a lady is James s first unarguably major work.
James Henry hammond, wikipedia
In the intervening months, teenager daisy has taken up with a handsome Italian named giovanelli, with whom she rendezvouses in the evenings—against the advice of both her mother and the resident American hostess, Mrs. They warn her about the insalubrious Roman air, and it is clear that, for Mrs. Walker at least, the impropriety of meeting handsome men, unaccompanied, is the more pressing danger. On one evening, winterbourne accompanies daisy, much to his consternation, for he is both attracted to and unable to comprehend her. He remarks:It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady; she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy.
It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers lawless passion. But daisy, on this occasion, continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. As Winterbourne attempts vainly to warn daisy that she is becoming the talk of the American colony, the young, headstrong woman continues to ignore him and all the proprieties. The climax of the story occurs when daisy again ventures out into the roman night—this time even her Italian admirer, giovanelli, counsels against it—and encounters the furious Winterbourne in the colosseum. With giovanellis consent, he insists they return home, but the rescue comes too late.
Although reading the later James is probably an acquired taste, patience and close attention to the figural dimensions of his language will repay the effort. Daisy miller First published: 1878 Type of work: novella On a trip abroad, a guileless American ingenue dies from a fever contracted when, against all advice, she goes out in the disease-ridden air of a roman evening. Daisy miller was James s first commercial success; it made him immediately famous as the chronicler of the international theme and remains, after The turn of the Screw (1898 probably his most widely known work. A characteristic example of James s early fiction, which is indebted to the allegorical tradition of Nathaniel Hawthorne, the novella establishes a recurrent theme that would be reworked with increasing complexity as James s career developed. Frederick winterbourne, an expatriate American resident for a number of years in Geneva, is on an excursion to vevey, switzerland, to visit an aunt.
He encounters the miller family, wealthy Americans touring Europe. Miller has remained home in Schenectady to attend to business, Mrs. Miller, her son Randolph, and her daughter daisy are sampling the pleasures of European tourist attractions. Winterbourne is immediately attracted to the young, beautiful, and flirtatious daisy, who innocently ignores the social conventions governing the conduct of young women in Europe. Daisy scandalizes Winterbournes aunt, Mrs. Costello, but charms and intrigues Winterbourne himself. Daisy extorts from him a promise to visit her in Rome in the coming winter, and the tale turns to their relations there.
Henry james goes to the movies
The symbolic power of long these central figures ramifies through the texts in subtle and occasionally explicit ways, but it is never obvious how one is to resolve their meaning. James was notoriously resistant to stating his thematic purposes openly, as the prefaces to the new York edition and his notebooks testify, and this tendency to circumlocution, obliqueness, and downright reticence became more and more the norm in his writing from the late 1890s onward. It has often been remarked that the archetypal Jamesian tale is The figure in the carpet (1896 a maddeningly elusive story about the fruitless search for the key or secret to a fictional writers corpus. Unlike irish writer James joyce, whose fondness for more or less rigorous allegorical systems led him to construct codes by which to decipher the large-scale structures underlying his narratives, james neither professed nor (apparently) ever seriously entertained the notion that his texts could be interpreted. Indeed, it is often all but impossible to state directly what James s texts are finally about. To say that The Ambassadors or The wings of the dove is about renunciation, or that The Altar of the dead (1895) is about mourning, is not so much wrong as it is banal. At this level, one might say that thematic accounts of James inevitably fail. The subject matters of his texts are invariably less interesting than the intricate moves and countermoves plotted and enacted by the characters set down in the situations James has concocted for them. Similarly, apple as James s prose becomes more and more figuratively dense and textured, the weight of analysis must fall on the rhetorical structure of his sentences.
the western prairies for capitalist. By the 1880s, and increasingly in the decades preceding World War i, american economic power was challenging that of Britain for global supremacy. This, one may surmise, is the relevant background to the demonstrably more powerful American characters who inhabit. James s mature fiction, much has been written about, james s prose style, especially about its growing complexity—even obscurity—in the last twenty years of his life. Close attention to the texts, however, reveals that while the periodicity of his sentences did grow as he matured, it is less their syntactic oddity—. James s sentences characteristically parse perfectly well—than their figurative richness that makes. James s prose bewildering. The difficulty of, james s later writings is related to another feature that, while always observable in his fiction, assumes greater prominence in the texts of his final period. These narratives are often controlled by central symbols announced in the title, for example, the biblical image of the holy Spirit in The wings of the dove, or the famous objet dart in The golden Bowl.
Too late he realizes that the rules of society are completely different in Europe, that discriminations and nuances that have matured over generations count for more than personal determination and a hefty bank balance. James would never abandon the international theme entirely; it would, in fact, be central to his late masterpieces, The Ambassadors, The wings of the dove, and, the golden Bowl. The portrait of a lady onward, however, the capacity of Americans to deal on equal terms with Europeans, to hold their own in the strategic game of manipulating social power, demonstrably improves. It may be that this raising of Americans stock, as it were, reflected. James s growing confidence in himself, both socially and artistically. What seems more likely, however, is that. James lived through a period when the balance book of economic—hence social—forces had begun to shift dramatically in favor of the United States, particularly in relation to Britain and France, the two countries he knew best. Americans had been going abroad in growing numbers since before the civil War; James s own family was a prime example.
Henry james - wikipedia
The distinctive focus of, james s early fiction is writings undoubtedly what the author himself dubbed the international theme. Roderick hudson (1876) and, the American to, daisy miller, the portrait of a lady, and, the Aspern Papers (1888 james wrote about Americans in Europe. One might invoke the innocents abroad of the mark Twain title to characterize. James s overarching sense of how his countrymen, generally wealthy and in search of a cultural breadth and depth unavailable in the gilded Age United States, came to grief when they encountered the more settled, socially entrenched European culture. The classic examples are, daisy miller and, the American. In the former, the ingenue heroine dies when she foolishly ignores warnings not to venture out in the roman evening when the danger of contracting fever is greatest. Her life and death allegorize the jamesian sense that Americans are vulnerable when they go to europe, that they are simply naïve in the ways of the world and thus easily fall to the wiles of the more cunning and worldly europeans. The American makes the same point less dramatically, depicting the tragic involvement of Christopher Newman, a disillusioned robber baron who has come to paris to escape the ruthless competition of American business, with an old French family whose daughter he loves and wishes to marry. Newman thinks that his money (which the family desires) and native good sense will be proof against the familys determined resistance to accepting him as a son-in-law.