Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to consider when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. 9 One university essay guide states that "descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic". 10 Lyric essays are an important form of descriptive essays. Dialectic In the dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophy, the writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument (with a counterargument but then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument. This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present.
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Forms and styles This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by an array of authors, including university students and professional essayists. Cause and effect The defining features of a "cause and effect" essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject, determine the purpose, consider the audience, think critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the language, and decide on english a conclusion. 6 Classification and division Classification is the categorization of objects into a larger whole while division is the breaking of a larger whole into smaller parts. 7 Compare and contrast Compare and contrast essays are characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison, and analogies. It is grouped by the object (chunking) or by point (sequential). The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. When writing a compare/contrast essay, writers need to determine their purpose, consider their audience, consider the basis and points of comparison, consider their thesis statement, arrange and develop the comparison, and reach a conclusion. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically. 8 Descriptive descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader's emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities.
5 Japan main article: zuihitsu As with the novel, essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since almost the beginnings of Japanese literature. Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are in this genre. Notable examples include The pillow book (c. 1000 by court lady sei shōnagon, and Tsurezuregusa (1330 by particularly renowned Japanese buddhist monk yoshida kenkō. Kenkō described his short writings similarly to montaigne, referring to them as "nonsensical thoughts" written in "idle hours". Another noteworthy difference from Europe is that women have traditionally written in Japan, though the more formal, Chinese-influenced writings of male lined writers were more prized at the time.
In France, michel de montaigne 's three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. In Italy, baldassare castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay il Cortigiano. In the 17th century, the jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom. 5 During the Age of Enlightenment, essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position; they also featured heavily in the rise of periodical literature, as seen in the works of Joseph Addison, richard yardage margaret Steele and Samuel Johnson. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. The early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English william hazlitt, charles Lamb, leigh Hunt and Thomas de quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays (e.g.,. Whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, robert louis Stevenson and Willa cather wrote lighter essays. Virginia woolf, edmund Wilson, and Charles du bos wrote literary criticism essays.
Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays ".make the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist." The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, "to try" or "to. In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt and this is still an alternative meaning. The Frenchman Michel de montaigne (15331592) was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as "attempts" to put his thoughts into writing, and his essays grew out of his commonplacing. 4 Inspired in particular by the works of Plutarch, a translation of whose œuvres Morales ( Moral works ) into French had just been published by jacques Amyot, montaigne began to compose his essays in 1572; the first edition, entitled Essais, was published in two. For the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones. Francis Bacon 's essays, published in book form in 1597, 1612, and 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. History europe English essayists included Robert Burton (15771641) and Sir Thomas Browne (16051682).
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Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills; admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants, and in the humanities and social sciences essays are often used as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams. The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other media beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions. Contents Definitions An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". 2 It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall.
Aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. 3 he notes that "the essay is a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything and adds that "by tradition, almost by definition, the essay is a short piece". Furthermore, huxley argues that "essays employee belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference". These three poles (or worlds in which the essay may exist) are: The personal and the autobiographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole "write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description". The objective, the factual, and the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole "do not speak sarah directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, and drawing general conclusions from the relevant data". The abstract-universal: In this pole "we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience.
For other uses, see, essay (disambiguation). For a description of essays as used by wikipedia editors, see. For other uses, see, essai (disambiguation). An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper, an article, a pamphlet, and a short story. Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal.
Formal essays are characterized by "serious purpose, dignity, logical organization, length whereas the informal essay is characterized by "the personal element (self-revelation, individual tastes and experiences, confidential manner humor, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme etc. 1, essays are commonly used as literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g., Alexander Pope 's, an Essay on Criticism and, an Essay on Man ). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like. John Locke 's, an Essay concerning Human Understanding and, thomas Malthus 's, an Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada essays have become a major part of formal education.
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Instead of duplicating records, the same record business could take on dual roles; in this case as both a nurse and a patient. Support for long-term storage and change management (revision control) of all entity attributes. When data lives for a long time, it can change. Extensible databases support long-term storage, change management of the database structures, and revision control pdf of the data (records). Support for multiple applications and devices within the same structures. When creating a database always assume that multiple applications will write to the same database. This means that for every record written you should trackwhich application wrote or changed the record and perhaps on which device. Shahid Shah is an enterprise software analyst specializing in healthcare it with an emphasis on e-health, ehr/emr, meaningful Use, data integration, medical device connectivity, health informatics, and legacy modernization. The healthcare it guy.
Good data models allow an unlimited number of mappable identifiers for any entity—a primary key for internal consistency plus any number of external identifiers. Every person record should allow an extensible set of identification values to use for both id lookups and de-duplication requirements that crop up when integrating multiple systems. Support mother for separation of phi from clinical and transactional attributes. A good design is to put phi data into one database (configured with proper security and put the clinical, business, and other attributes into another database. Support for multiple simultaneous entity roles. Each entity in the database, such as person or organization, should be able to support multiple entity roles. We have already described that a person record should be created in a common table for patients, physicians, nurses, and so on, and why that makes sense. However, think about the scenario where a nurse at a hospital may also be a patient in the same hospital.
records. Instead of having a separate table for each type of person (for example, a different table for a patient versus a physician you should try to model the different person types in a single inheritable and related table. Flexible multi-facility organization models. The same goes for organizations. Facilities, tenants, hospitals, insurance providers, departments, clinics, administration, and related data should be grouped into something conceptually called an organization. Any entity that isnt a person type will likely fall into the Organization record type category—a single table with appropriate attributes should work fine. Support for robust patient identification and de-duplication. When working in a multi-entity legal framework, there wont be a single patient identifier to rule all the systems.
When you move from the certainty of supporting users inside a single organization to working with the uncertainty of multi-organization relationships online and user communities, application architectures and data models must accommodate more fluid workflows that can change potentially daily or weekly based on the demands. The healthcare it applications development community needs to learn that data modeling is not just a technical exercise thats what leads to bad designs that dont incorporate next generation business models. You cant define a data model with a bunch of engineers and other geeks sitting around a table. Data modeling is about understanding all of the uses of the data, the relationships and attributes involved in the data, and, most importantly, how the data management approach will grow and change in the future. Its the last part (extensibility of the database) that developers often forget when designing most systems. All this involves direct communication with end users, stakeholders, and other non-technical personnel. Too often, databases are treated as a file cabinet—just let your application toss whatever is necessary in there and then deal with organizing it later. But in the emerging world of acos and pcmh that wont be possible.
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Todays reality of patient management is disjointed care and most of the collaborators in a patients care team dont know what each other is doing for the patient in real time. Knowing all the different participants in the patients care team (providers, payers, family members, etc.) and coordinating and integrating their electronic activities is what successful ehrs must handle with ease as they look to graduate from basic retrospective documentation systems to modern patient collaboration platforms. Ehr apps are usually restricted to legal entities (e.g. A single hospital or a hospital system or single ambulatory practice). To manage integrated and coordinated care, successful ehr systems must open themselves up beyond legal boundaries but most of them have created their databases and data models to preclude that capability. Most existing ehrs, even modern ones that were built for meaningful use, have traditionally done a poor job understanding and designing multi-entity or multi-tenant plan database models that would encourage secure, trusted, electronic collaboration between legal organizations (e.g. Two hospitals or multiple clinics) and patients as they move across entities. This is due not to the lack of availability of good design patterns but a lack of comprehension that tomorrows shared savings initiatives, capitated payment models, acos, and pchms require a level of coordination and amount of measurements of quality metrics that are tough. Future ehrs cannot be seen as applications alone but as broad care coordination platforms that must allow dynamic business models that can accommodate a great deal of uncertainty and flexibility, especially with respect to legal boundaries.