Definitions, Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, 52 For Aristotle, the good life is one of personal self-fulfillment. Man should enjoy the values of this world. Using his mind to the fullest, each man should work to achieve his own happiness here on earth. And in the process he should be conscious of his own value. Pride, writes Aristotle—a rational pride in oneself and in ones moral character—is, when it is earned, the crown of the virtues. A proud man does not negate his own identity. He does not sink selflessly into the community. He is not a promising subject for the Platonic state.
Aristotle 's, philosophy summary )
It is an orderly, intelligible, natural realm, open to the mind thesis of man. In such a universe, knowledge cannot be acquired by special revelations from another dimension; there is no place for ineffable intuitions of the beyond. Repudiating the mystical elements in Platos epistemology, aristotle is the father of logic and the champion of reason as mans only means of knowledge. Knowledge, he holds, must be based on and derived from the data of sense experience; it must be formulated in terms of objectively defined concepts; it must be validated by a process of logic. Leonard peikoff, The Ominous Parallels, 29 Indicating that the early scientists had discarded Aristotle in rebellion against his religious interpreters, Professor Randall points out that their scientific achievements had, in fact, an unacknowledged Aristotelian base and were carrying out the implications of Aristotles theories. Randalls Aristotle, the Objectivist Newsletter, may 1963, 18 Let us note. The radical difference between Aristotles view of concepts and the Objectivist view, particularly in regard to the issue of essential characteristics. It is Aristotle who first formulated the principles of correct definition. It is Aristotle who identified the fact that only concretes exist. But Aristotle held that definitions refer to metaphysical essences, which exist in concretes as a special element or formative power, and he held that the process of concept-formation depends on a kind of direct intuition by which mans mind grasps these essences and forms concepts. Aristotle regarded essence as metaphysical; Objectivism regards it as epistemological.
If we consider the fact that to this day remote everything that makes us civilized beings, every rational value that we possess—including the birth of science, the industrial revolution, the creation of the United States, even the structure of our language—is the result of Aristotles influence. For the new Intellectual, for the new Intellectual, 22, aristotle is the champion of this world, the champion of nature, as against the supernaturalism of Plato. Denying Platos World of Forms, Aristotle maintains that there is only one reality: the world of particulars in which we live, the world men perceive by means of their physical senses. Universals, he holds, are merely aspects of existing entities, isolated in thought by a process of selective attention; they have no existence apart from particulars. Reality is comprised, not of Platonic abstractions, but of concrete, individual entities, each with a definite nature, each obeying the laws inherent in its nature. Aristotles universe is the universe of science. The physical world, in his view, is not a shadowy projection controlled by a divine dimension, but an autonomous, self-sufficient realm.
There is only one fundamental issue in philosophy: the cognitive efficacy of mans mind. The conflict of Aristotle versus Plato is the conflict of reason versus mysticism. It was Plato who formulated most of philosophys basic questions—and doubts. It was Aristotle who laid the foundation for most of the answers. Thereafter, the record of their duel is the record of mans long struggle to deny and surrender or to uphold and assert the validity of his particular mode of consciousness. Randalls Aristotle, the Objectivist Newsletter, may 1963, 18, aristotles philosophy was the intellects Declaration of Independence. Aristotle, the father of logic, should be given the title of the worlds first intellectual, in the purest and noblest sense of that word. No matter what remnants of Platonism did exist in Aristotles system, his incomparable achievement roles lay in the fact that he defined the basic principles of a rational view of existence and of mans consciousness: that there is only one reality, the one which man perceives—that.
Home, if there is a philosophical Atlas who carries the whole of Western civilization on his shoulders, it is Aristotle. He has been opposed, misinterpreted, misrepresented, and—like an axiom—used by his enemies in the very act of denying him. Whatever intellectual progress men have achieved rests on his achievements. Aristotle may be regarded as the cultural barometer of Western history. Whenever his influence dominated the scene, it paved the way for one of historys brilliant eras; whenever it fell, so did mankind. The Aristotelian revival of the thirteenth century brought men to the renaissance. The intellectual counter-revolution turned them back toward the cave of his antipode: Plato.
Aristotle : Politics, summary - philosophers
It is necessary to tell that Carl Gustav jung is the author of essay "analytical psychology" according to which the behavior of people is caused by functions of a brain, and business also carl Gustav jung is the author of "depth psychology" according to which motives. The information about parities of analytical psychology of Carl Gustav jung with physiognomy of a human face look on pages of this site in section with the name: analytical physiognomy. From the point of view of occult philosophy the sphere of consciousness can be correlated with a mental body, sphere of individuality with an astral body, sphere of feelings with a physical body, provided that in a context of occult philosophy, and also. But all three bodies of human essence in a context of physiognomy are within the limits of conceivable space and consequently the mental body corresponds with consciousness. From the point of view of the standard religious understanding of three levels of human essence the sphere of consciousness corresponds with spirit, the sphere of individuality corresponds with soul, the sphere of feelings corresponds with a body, namely the soul-consciousness is equivalent to spirit. Thus different philosophical and psychological systems operate with identical concepts but use different terminologies or give to concepts different sense, and consequently differently estimate properties of the man. Especially distinction of opinions can be noticed in estimations of human individuality as the sphere of individuality is inaccessible to direct sensual perception, and consequently the individuality is insignificant or is a handicap for realization of consciousness in many philosophical and psychological systems, but.
Namely the sphere of individuality is the most important for understanding of the man and demands special attention. Therefore if in this or that philosophical or psychological system there is a distinction between realized personality and individual personality then such system is high-grade, and if information about individual ego is absent then the system is incomplete. The original understanding of individuality, and understanding of aspirations of individuality to immortality is possible only in a context of the Christian philosophy. More detailed information on understanding of immortality and individuality in different philosophical and psychological systems, and also the information on differences of different philosophical and psychological systems from concepts of Christian philosophy, and in particular Christian Gnostic philosophy, i shall try to publish in the. The following page gives comparison of ancient Indian philosophy with physiognomy of a human face. previous - upwards - following.
Application of these terms allows to understand an essence of human individuality in a context of existential philosophy, and an essence of consciousness in a context of transcendental philosophy, and also in a context of psychological system of Carl Gustav jung. Or it is possible to use terminology of some other psychological and philosophical systems in which there is an understanding of an essence of human individuality, that is shown on the chart. The chart shows the conditional image of a human face in profile which is divided into three physiognomic parts: sphere of consciousness (forehead and eyebrows sphere of individuality (nose sphere of feelings (lips and chin). For each sphere there correspond concepts (terms) known of different philosophical and psychological systems, namely concepts are grouped according to three physiognomic spheres that forms the triangle which shows ratio of spirit with soul and body, or otherwise to tell ratio of transcendental with existential. sphere of consciousness corresponds with transcendental images which are not accessible to sensual perception but can be realized. Sphere of individuality corresponds with existential phenomena which are not accessible to sensual perception but are essence of life.
Sphere of feelings corresponds with the material (empirical) phenomena which are perceived by feelings and can be identified by consciousness. If the sphere of consciousness prevails then the transcendental world-understanding (ideology) is peculiar to the man. If the sphere of individuality prevails then the existential outlook (weltanschauung) is peculiar to the man. If the sphere of feelings prevails then the material world-sensation is peculiar to the man. But it is necessary to take into account that each man in some extent has world-understanding and outlook and world-sensation, but if any one physiognomic sphere prevails then the appropriate attitude of the man to the world is the most appreciable. From the point of view of the depth psychology of Carl Gustav jung the sphere of consciousness corresponds with realized psychological ego, and the sphere of individuality corresponds with archetype of egoism or psychological center of individual specialty of the man.
Aristotle 's Metaphysics (Stanford Encyclopedia
Namely as a result of indestructible connection of atoms of individuality there was the resurrection and ascension of the transfigurated body that became the paradigm of Gnostic (based on knowledge) and Canonical (based on belief) Christian philosophy. The Christian philosophy owl is similar to systems of other world philosophies but essentially differs as immortality of individual soul affirms and revival (resurrection) of a body is supposed that is impossible from the point of view of all philosophies of the world. Only in a context of Christian philosophy it is possible to understand the human nature originally as individual immortality is unique true of life, and if individual immortality is denied then the man can not find true in immortality of consciousness, that is the reason. Comprehension of these contradictions probably in a context of some other philosophical systems, in which affirms that consciousness predetermines existence of the man, but only in a context of Christian philosophy it is possible to understand original immortality which will neutralize psychological contradictions of the. Namely from the point of view of psychology and physiognomy it is possible to consider concepts of different philosophical systems which allow to consider different aspects of the human person, but it is necessary to pay special attention on individuality which allows to understand outlook. In modern philosophy the soul-consciousness is designated by the term first "transcendental and soul-individuality is designated by the term "existential". Or in the "depth psychology" (Tiefenpsychologie) of the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav jung the soul-consciousness is designated by the term "ego and the soul-individuality is designated by the term "egoism" (das Selbst).
of individuality is not kept in consciousness after destruction of a material body, namely the consciousness incorporates to the primary source and atoms of individuality dissipate. Namely democritus denied immortality of individual soul and counted insignificant immortality of the realized soul as the consciousness does not remember individuality, and consequently the morals of his philosophy consist in individual serenity during existence of a material body, or it is possible to tell. Thus in philosophical systems of Plato and Aristotle or Democritus, and also from the point of view of all ancient Greek philosophy, which is in some extent congruous to all ancient world philosophical systems, individual immortality of the man is denied but immortality of consciousness. For example, in neo-platonism the immortality means merge of consciousness with transcendental (incomprehensible) source of life outside of mental comprehended space (outside the world and in classical philosophy of Plato and Aristotle the soul-consciousness incorporates to global consciousness in limits of mental comprehended space, but. Not only in the Greek philosophy but also from the point of view of all systems of world philosophies the immortality of soul-consciousness is supposed, but immortality of individual soul is denied. Probably long existence of atoms of individual soul in the connected condition after destruction of a material body but sooner or later atoms dissipate and then individuality of the man disappears, then the consciousness incorporates to the primary source of consciousness and can repeat. Therefore birth of the Christ was necessary that immortality of individual human souls became possible, as people can not achieve an indestructible condition of atoms of individuality which is not subject to dispersion in space after the termination of ability to live of a material. Therefore the son of the god was embodied among people to begin "the first-born from dead" (the first alive from dead) and to involve in itself everything, and as a result people have seen transfiguration and resurrection and ascension of a material body, that.
When the body collapses then the free form is barbing separated from a material body and comes back in the world of pure forms where incorporates to the common world consciousness which Aristotle named: the initial engine. Difference of Plato's philosophy and Aristotle's philosophy consists that for. Plato the soul-consciousness is idea according to which bodies are formed in a material world, but if the body finishes existence then the soul-consciousness comes back in the world of ideas and keeps self consciousness, and then the soul-consciousness again embodies in a material world. For Aristotle the soul-consciousness is the form and is similar to the common form-building factor according to which human bodies are formed in a shapeless matter, and consequently if the body finishes existence then the soul-consciousness merges with the form of uniform consciousness and loses. In essence forms of Aristotle correspond with the global world category of movement according to which there is a movement of the world, and consequently. Aristotle has given the name "initial engine" to a source of movement, and ideas of Plato correspond with the global world category of life according to which in the world there are images. The information on global world categories look at this site in the other section with the name: divine categories. Thus in philosophy of Plato and Aristotle there is a soul-consciousness and there is no soul-individuality that denies immortality of individual soul but supposes immortality of consciousness. Plato and Aristotle had the information on soul-individuality but considered individuality as a handicap for consciousness which was the basic core of their philosophies, and consequently they did not consider individuality as essential.
Aristotle 's biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of, philosophy
Soul in Gnostic philosophy, page. Immortality of a soul in the Gnostic philosophy. The sixth page results the further information on ancient Greek philosophy and in particular describes understanding of human soul in a context of Christian Gnostic philosophy which essentially differs from concepts of ancient Greek philosophy., the basic question of any philosophical system consists in immortality. In physiognomy this question too is important as allows to understand sense of a human life and features of human character as conditions for realization of soul development. Philosophical systems of the Ancient Greece are sources of modern philosophy, and also are equivalent to other ancient world philosophical systems, and in particular are equivalent to systems of the Indian philosophy or ancient Chinese philosophy, and consequently the question on immortality is key. In philosophical system of Plato the soul is consciousness and occurs from sphere of ideas, and after end of material existence comes back in the initial world of ideas. Namely according professional to philosophy of Plato the human soul-consciousness is "idea" which is embodied in a material world and forms a human body, and if the body collapses then comes back in the world of ideas or otherwise to tell in the world of initial. In philosophical system of Aristotle the soul too is consciousness but has other sense, namely the soul is "form" according to which in a shapeless matter the human body is formed.