So boys learned how to milk cows, grow vegetables, repair tools, etc. And even had lessons on the various types of plows. ( 2 the boarding schools had what came to be called the "half and half" system where students spent half of the day in the classroom and half at a work assignment or "detail" on the school grounds. The academic curriculum included courses. History, geography, language, arithmetic, reading, writing and spelling. Music and drama were offered at most schools.
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They thought they'd shame them a little bit if they made an extra company and called it the lazy company. (Helma ward, makah, tulalip Indian School, from interview with Carolyn Marr). The foremost requirement for assimilation into American society, authorities felt, was mastery of the English language. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Morgan described English as "the language of the greatest, most powerful and enterprising nationalities beneath the sun.". Such chauvinism did not allow for bilingualism in the boarding schools. Students were prohibited from speaking their native languages and those caught "speaking Indian" were severely punished. Later, many former students regretted diary that they lost the ability to speak their native language fluently because of the years they spent in boarding school. Another important component of the government policy for "civilizing" the Indians was to teach farming techniques. Although few reservations in the pacific Northwest had either fertile land or a climate conducive to agriculture, nonetheless it was felt that farming was the proper occupation for American citizens.
Everything happened by bells, 'triangles´ they were called. A triangle would ring in the morning and we would all run, line up, march in, get our little" of tooth powder, wash our teeth, brush our hair, wash our hands and faces, and then we all lined up and marched outside. Whether it was raining, snowing night or blowing, we all went outside and did what was called 'setting up exercises´ for twenty minutes. (Joyce simmons Cheeka, tulalip Indian School, memoirs collected by finley). Conformity to rules and regulations was strongly encouraged: we went from the tallest to the littlest, all the way down in companies. We had a, b, c, d companies. E company was the lazy company, those that just couldn't get up and make. They had all kinds of demerits for those people.
Even the architecture and landscaping appeared similar from one institution to the next. Common features included a military style regimen, a strict adherence to English language only, an emphasis on farming, and a schedule that equally split academic and vocational training. Reports of the commissioner of Indian Affairs and other documents you can compare the official reports submitted by various schools. Part 4: a typical daily Schedule. A typical daily schedule at a boarding school began with an early wake-up call followed by a series of tasks punctuated by the ringing of bells. Students were required to march from one activity to the next. Regular inspections and drills took place outdoors with platoons organized according to age and rank. Competitions were held to see which group could achieve the finest marching formation.
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Part 3: boarding Schools, in eastern Washington,. Military fort near Spokane was transformed into a boarding school for Indians of the Spokane and Colville reservations. Fort Spokane boarding School opened in 1900 with an enrollment of 83 pupils and grew to 200 by 1902. It operated only until 1914 after which time the children attended day schools closer to their homes. Similarly, the military facility at Fort Simcoe became a school for the yakama and their neighbors.
The national system of Indian education, including both off reservation boarding schools, reservation boarding schools and day schools, continued to expand at the turn of the century. In the pacific Northwest, Chemawa Indian School became the largest off reservation boarding school and drew pupils from throughout the region and Alaska. Chemawa had originally been located at Forest Grove, oregon, but was moved to salem in 1885 after officials determined that the original site lacked adequate agricultural land. By writing 1920 Chemawa enrolled 903 students from 90 different tribes, nearly a third coming from Alaska. All federal boarding schools, whether on or off reservation, shared certain characteristics. The bureau of Indian Affairs issued directives that were followed by superintendents throughout the nation.
Chirouse opened a school in 1857 for six boys and five girls. By 1860 he had 15 pupils and the school continued to grow under the auspices of the sisters of Providence. At these missionary run schools, traditional religious and cultural practices were strongly discouraged while instruction in the Christian doctrines took place utilizing pictures, statues, hymns, prayers and storytelling. Some missionary schools received federal support, particularly at times when Congress felt less inclined to provide the large sums of money needed to establish government schools. The tulalip Mission School became the first contract Indian school, an arrangement whereby the government provided annual funds to maintain the buildings while the Church furnished books, clothing, housing and medical care. In 1896 Congress drastically reduced the funding for mission schools and eventually, in the winter of 1900-01, the tulalip school became a federal facility.
The old school buildings were destroyed by fire in 1902. On January 23, 1905, exactly fifty years after the signing of the point Elliott Treaty, a new and larger school opened along the shores of Tulalip bay. The tulalip Indian School began under the supervision of Charles Milton Buchanan, a physician who also served as Indian Agent for the reservation. The first year it had only one dormitory, but by 1907 both girls' and boys' buildings were completed and the school had a capacity enrollment of 200 students. The children ranged in age from 6 to 18 years and came from many different reservations as well as some off reservation communities. It was not uncommon for teachers at day schools to recommend certain students for the boarding school. Because tulalip offered a maximum of eighth grade education, some students transferred to Chemawa for more advanced training.
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In Tacoma, a one-room shack served as a day school for young puyallup Indians beginning in 1860. By 1873 students had begun boarding at the school and during the 1880s enrollment increased to 125 pupils. At the turn of the century, cushman Indian School had become a large industrial boarding school, drawing over 350 students from around the northwest and Alaska. Report of Superintendent of Indian Schools praised Cushman for being well equipped for industrial training and photographs show a modern machine shop. Cushman remained one of the largest on reservation boarding schools in the region pdf until it closed in 1920. Part 2: Mission Schools, meanwhile, on many reservations missionaries operated schools that combined religious with academic training. At Priest's point near the tulalip Reservation, reverend.
with the boarding schools by transferring students for more advanced studies. In the pacific Northwest, treaties negotiated with the Indians during the 1850s included promises of educational support for the tribes. For example, article 10 of the medicine Creek treaty signed by members of the nisqually, squaxin, puyallup and Steilacoom Tribes on December 26, 1854 called for the establishment of an agricultural and industrial school "to be free to the children of said tribes for. A similar clause appears in the Treaty of point Elliott, signed by representatives of tribes living in the central and northern Puget sound region. The promised schools did not come into existence for several years. In the 1870s and 1880s a few small reservation boarding schools were established on the Chehalis, skokomish and makah Reservations. These institutions, which had fewer than 50 students, were all closed by 1896 and replaced by day schools.
Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, "kill the Indian and save the man." At Carlisle, revelation young Indian boys and girls were subjected to a complete transformation. Photographs taken at the school illustrate how they looked "before" and "after". The dramatic contrast between traditional clothing and hairstyles and Victorian styles of dress helped convince the public that through boarding school education Indians could become completely "civilized". Following the model of Carlisle, additional off reservation boarding schools were established in other parts of the country, including Forest Grove, oregon (later known as Chemawa). ( 1 seeking to educate increasing numbers of Indian children at lower cost, the federal government established two other types of schools: the reservation boarding school and day schools. Reservation boarding schools had the advantage of being closer to Indian communities and as a result had lower transportation costs. Contact between students and their families was somewhat restricted as students remained at the school for eight to nine months of the year.
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Home american Indians of the pacific Northwest Collection topical Essays » Assimilation Through Education: Indian boarding Schools in the pacific Northwest. Introduction, the goal of Indian education from the 1880s through the 1920s was to assimilate Indian people into the melting pot of America by placing them in institutions where traditional ways could be replaced by those sanctioned by the government. Federal Indian policy business called for the removal of children from their families and in many cases enrollment in a government run boarding school. In this way, the policy makers believed, young people would be immersed in the values and practical knowledge of the dominant American society while also being kept away from any influences imparted by their traditionally-minded relatives. Part 1: Indian boarding School movement. The Indian boarding school movement began in the post civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people. Whereas before many Americans regarded the native people with either fear or loathing, the reformers believed that with the proper education and treatment Indians could become just like other citizens. They convinced the leaders of Congress that education could change at least some of the Indian population into patriotic and productive members of society. One of the first efforts to accomplish this goal was the carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, founded by captain Richard Henry Pratt in 1879.