An example for apostasy in Hinduism is the king ravana. Ravana was born as a brahmin but in his later life chose to be a kshatriya. Because he did not follow his Dharma, he had committed a sin according to hinduism. This is so because according to lord Shiva, devotees should not leave their Varna for material pleasures. King ravana later lost all of his wealth, his powers, became blind and was considered evil. 64 Criticizing, forgetting and opposing a veda is also a sin in Hinduism according to manusmriti verse.56.
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57 Baptized individuals who leave the organization because they disagree with the religion's teachings are also regarded as apostates and are shunned. 58 Watch Tower Society literature describes apostates as "mentally diseased" individuals who can "infect others with their disloyal teachings". 59 60 Former members who are defined as apostates are said to have become part of the antichrist and are regarded as more reprehensible than non-Witnesses. 61 Mormonism edit main article: Ex-Mormon Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints (commonly called the mormons ) are considered by church leadership to engage in resume apostasy when they publicly teach or espouse opinions and doctrines contrary to the teachings of the. Apostasy is also assumed in cases of a member engaging in activities forbidden by the church's teachings, such as adultery or homosexual relations. In such circumstances the church will frequently subject the non-conforming member to a disciplinary council which may result in disfellowshipment (a temporary loss of church participation privileges) or excommunication (a semi-permanent loss of church membership). The nature of the disciplinary council varies with the member's standing within the church as mens' cases are often heard by a much larger group than womens'. Hinduism edit hinduism grants absolute freedom for an individual to leave or choose his or her faith on the path to god. Hindus believe all sincere faiths ultimately lead to the same god. 62 However, according to mahabharata santi parva sections xxxivxxxv, abandonment of Hinduism and adopting another creed is frowned upon. 63 However, if a hindu embraces a dharma (duty) or a varna other than the one he/she was already believed in, it is a sin according to hinduism.
Based on the concept of God's sovereign grace, some hold that, though true believers may stray, they never totally fall away. Others affirm that any who fall away were never really saved. Though they may have "believed" for a while, they never experienced regeneration. Still others argue that the biblical warnings against apostasy are real and that believers maintain the freedom, at least potentially, to reject God's salvation. 53 In the recent past, in the roman Catholic Church the word was business also applied to the renunciation of monastic vows ( apostasis a monachatu and to the abandonment of the clerical profession for the life of the world ( apostasis a clericatu ) without. 54 Jehovah's Witnesses edit main article: Jehovah's Witnesses beliefs Apostasy jehovah's Witness publications define apostasy as the abandonment of the worship and service of God, constituting rebellion against God. 55 They apply the term to a range of conduct, including open dissent with the religion's doctrines, celebration of "false religious holidays" (including Christmas and Easter and participation in activities and worship of other religions. 56 Members of the religion who are accused of apostasy are typically required to appear before a congregational judicial committee, by which they may be "disfellowshipped"—the most severe of the religion's disciplinary procedures that involves expulsion from the religion and shunning by all congregants, including.
50 "Apostasy is symbolized as Israel the faithless spouse turning away from Yahweh her marriage partner to pursue the advances of other gods (Jeremiah 2:1-3; ezekiel 16). 'your children have forsaken me and sworn by god that are not gods. I supplied all their needs, yet they committed adultery and thronged to the houses of prostitutes' (Jeremiah 5:7, niv). Adultery is used most often to describe the horror of the betrayal and covenant breaking involved in idolatry. Like literal adultery it does include the idea of someone blinded by infatuation, in this case for an idol: 'how I have been grieved by their adulterous hearts. Which have lusted after their idols' (ezekiel 6:9)." 50 Speaking with specific regard to apostasy in Christianity, michael Fink writes: Apostasy is certainly a biblical concept, but the implications of the teaching have been hotly debated. 52 The debate has centered on the issue of apostasy and salvation.
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though certain Protestants believe that biblically this is writing impossible once saved, forever saved. 43 "Apostasy is the antonym of conversion; it is deconversion.". Oropeza states that apostasy is a "phenomenon tiger that occurs when a religious follower or group of followers turn away from or otherwise repudiate the central beliefs and practices they once embraced in a respective religious community." 45 The Ancient Greek noun ποστασία apostasia rebellion, abandonment. 47 However, "the concept of apostasy is found throughout Scripture." 48 The dictionary of Biblical Imagery states that "There are at least four distinct images in Scripture of the concept of apostasy. All connote an intentional defection from the faith." 49 These images are: Rebellion; Turning Away; Falling Away; Adultery. 50 Rebellion: "In classical literature apostasia was used to denote a coup or defection. By extension the septuagint always uses it to portray a rebellion against God (Joshua 22:22; 2 Chronicles 29:19)." 50 Turning away: "Apostasy is also pictured as the heart turning away from God (Jeremiah 17:5-6) and righteousness (ezekiel 3:20).
In the ot it centers on Israel's breaking covenant relationship with God through disobedience to the law (Jeremiah 2:19 especially following other gods (Judges 2:19) and practicing their immorality (Daniel 9:9-11). Following the lord or journeying with him is one of the chief images of faithfulness in the Scriptures. Hebrew root ( swr ) is used to picture those who have turned away and ceased to follow God i am grieved that I have made saul king, because he has turned away from me 1 Samuel 15:11). The image of turning away from the lord, who is the rightful leader, and following behind false gods is the dominant image for apostasy in the." 50 Falling away: "The image of falling, with the sense of going to eternal destruction, is particularly evident. In his Christ's parable of the wise and foolish builder, in which the house built on sand falls with a crash in the midst of a storm (Matthew 7:24-27). He painted a highly memorable image of the dangers of falling spiritually." 51 Adultery: One of the most common images for apostasy in the Old Testament is adultery.
19 Comoros 20 Iran not in the penal Code. 21 Jordan possibly illegal (fine, child custody loss, marriage annulment) although officials claim otherwise, convictions are recorded for apostasy 22 23 Kuwait Apostasy is not illegal in Kuwait, although apostasy is penalized in family courts for Muslims. 25 26 For Muslims, apostasy in family court can result in loss of child custody, inheritance rights, annulment if married to a muslim 25 26 and possibly death penalty. Malaysia illegal in five of thirteen states (fines) if they do not get conversion permission from Sharia court. 29 Maldives 20 - illegal for Muslim nationals (loss of citizenship).
30 31 Illegal to proselytise for religions other than Islam. Mauritania illegal (death penalty if still apostate after 3 days) 32 Morocco not illegal, but official Islamic council decreed apostates should be put to death. 33 Illegal to proselytise for religions other than Islam (six months to three years imprisonment) 34 Oman illegal (prison) according to Article 209 of Oman penal code, and denies child custody rights under Article 32 of Personal Status Law 33 Qatar illegal (death penalty). Religious views edit baha'i edit see also: covenant-breaker, freedom of religion in Iran, and List of former Bahá'ís Both marginal and apostate baha'is have existed in the baha'i community 39 who are known as nāqeżīn. 40 Muslims often regard adherents of the bahá'í faith as apostates from Islam, 41 and there have been cases in some muslim countries where baha'is have been harassed and persecuted. 42 Christianity edit main article: Apostasy in Christianity see also: Apostata capiendo and Backslide The Christian understanding of apostasy is "a willful falling away from, or rebellion against, Christian truth. Apostasy is the rejection of Christ by one who has been a christian.
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For instance, european converts from Christianity to Islam who summary sought refuge in the barbary States or in the Ottoman Empire were termed "renegades" in the history of that region. As of 2016, sixteen Muslim countries criminalize public apostasy, and their apostasy laws only concern apostasy from Islam, citing Islamic law as justification. No country in the Americas or Europe had any law forbidding the renunciation of a religious belief or restricting the freedom to choose one's religion. The following countries have criminal statutes that forbid apostasy or blasphemy: 16 countries that criminalize apostasy from Islam or blasphemy has been proposed as of 2013. Some muslim countries impose the death penalty or a prison sentence for apostasy from Islam, or ban non-Muslims from proselytizing. 17 (Note that apostasy from other religions to Islam is legal in all countries indicated below) Afghanistan illegal (death penalty, though the. And other coalition members have put pressure that has prevented recent executions) 18 Brunei per recently enacted Sharia law, section 112(1) of the Brunei penal Code states that a muslim who declares himself non-Muslim commits a crime that is punishable with death, or with. However, if the accused has recanted his conversion, he may be acquitted of the crime of apostasy.
Article.2 12 bars coercion that would impair the right to have or adopt a religion or belief, including the use of threat of physical force or penal sanctions to compel believers or non-believers to adhere to their religious beliefs and plan congregations, to recant their. 13 History edit As early as the 3rd century ad, apostasy against the zoroastrian faith in the sasanian Empire was criminalized. The high priest, kidir, instigated pogroms against Jews, Christians, buddhists, and others in effort to solidify the hold of the state religion. 14 As the roman Empire adopted Christianity as its state religion, apostasy became formally criminalized in the Theodosian Code, followed by the corpus Juris civilis (the justinian Code). 15 The justinian Code went on to form the basis of law in most of Western Europe during the middle Ages and so apostasy was similarly persecuted to varying degrees in Europe throughout this period and into the early modern period. Eastern Europe similarly inherited many of its legal traditions regarding apostasy from the romans, but not from the justinian Code. Citation needed with the rise of Islam came a relative religious tolerance in the middle eastern regions citation needed. Nevertheless, as the middle Ages progressed, the successive islamic caliphates began to enforce their own laws against apostasy, often modeled on those of the romans and the europeans. Citation needed contemporary criminalization of apostasy edit further information: Application of sharia law by country, use of capital punishment by nation, and Freedom of religion Historically, apostasy was considered a criminal offense in many societies, commonly likened with the crimes of treason, desertion, or mutiny.
living not primarily in the. Bromley defined the apostate role as follows and distinguished it from the defector and whistleblower roles. 10 Apostate role : defined as one that occurs in a highly polarized situation in which an organization member undertakes a total change of loyalties by allying with one or more elements of an oppositional coalition without the consent or control of the organization. The narrative documents the quintessentially evil essence of the apostate's former organization chronicled through the apostate's personal experience of capture and ultimate escape/rescue. Defector role : an organizational participant negotiates exit primarily with organizational authorities, who grant permission for role relinquishment, control the exit process, and facilitate role transmission. The jointly constructed narrative assigns primary moral responsibility for role performance problems to the departing member and interprets organizational permission as commitment to extraordinary moral standards and preservation of public trust. Whistle-blower role : defined here as when an organization member forms an alliance with an external regulatory agency through personal testimony concerning specific, contested organizational practices that the external unit uses to sanction the organization. The narrative constructed jointly by the whistle blower and regulatory agency is depicts the whistle-blower as motivated by personal conscience, and the organization by defense of the public interest. Wright, an American sociologist and author, asserts that apostasy is a unique phenomenon and a distinct type of religious defection in which the apostate is a defector "who is aligned with an oppositional coalition in an effort to broaden the dispute, and embraces public claims-making.
The term is occasionally also used metaphorically to refer to renunciation of a non-religious belief or cause, such as a political party, brain trust, or a sports team. Apostasy is generally not a self-definition: few former believers call themselves apostates because of the negative connotation of the term. Many religious groups and some states punish apostates; this may be the official policy of the religious group or may simply be the voluntary action of its members. Such punishment may include shunning, excommunication, verbal abuse, physical violence, or even execution. 6 Examples of punishment by death for apostates can be seen under the Sharia law found barbing in certain Islamic countries. As of 2014, about a quarter of the worlds countries and territories (26) had anti-blasphemy laws or policies, 7 of which 13 nations, all Muslim majority, have death penalty for apostasy. 8 Contents Sociological definitions edit The American sociologist Lewis.
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For other uses, see. For other uses, see, apostasy (disambiguation). Countries ( red ) in long which, as of 2013, apostasy or blasphemy against the local or state religion was punishable by execution under the law. Currently, this only occurs in some. 1 2 3 4, apostasy ( /əpɒstəsi/ ; Greek : ποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person. It can also be defined within the broader context of embracing an opinion contrary to one's previous beliefs. 5, one who commits apostasy is known as an apostate. Committing apostasy is called apostatizing (or apostasizing also spelled apostacizing ). The term apostasy is used by sociologists to mean renunciation and criticism of, or opposition to, a person's former religion, in a technical sense and without pejorative connotation.