Gordon Chew's son, Sterling Chew, of Tenakee logging Company, loads Alaska yellow Cedars on a self-loading log truck. Courtesy gordon Chew, chews company, tenakee logging, relies on old-growth timber, and Chew believes his practice of carefully selecting just a few trees — rather than razing acres of forest — keeps his business environmentally sustainable. It also keeps him afloat: the market for lower-quality second growth has already been cornered by giant lumber companies in Washington, Oregon and Northern California. There, timber companies own private land, so they can largely avoid the red tape of Forest Service sales, and their proximity to major ports and highways allows them ship and sell wood for a fraction of what it costs in southeast Alaska. Without old growth, Alaskan loggers like chew just couldnt compete. Yet old-growth logging is controversial, and in 2010, the forest Service announced it would effectively end old-growth logging in the tongass.
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Elias mountains, as well as smaller section of the Aleutian Range, yukon delta, kenai peninsula, se alaska, and upper yukon. . While the national Park service lands contain significant forests, they are heavily concentrated in mountainous areas. . Traditional activities, including those related to subsistence, are permitted in Alaskas parks, but forestry management is limited. Date Created: 13th november 2012). Forests, one damp, gray day in June, gordon Chew, a 59-year-old carpenter, logger and small sawmill owner from the island community of Tenakee springs, Alaska, was doing something hes breeding been doing a lot lately: standing inside a decades-old clear cut in the tongass National Forest. The sitka spruce and western hemlock were growing back nicely, chew noted, some bigger than expected, some smaller, the old stumps draped in moss and lichen. But like most old clear cuts in the tongass, this one was hardly ready to log again — at least not by Chews standards. A woodworker himself, hes picky about trees, cutting only the finest to sell to boat builders oral and artisans. If you want a cheap two-by-four, you go to home depot, he says. If you want a fine-grained old-growth piece you can make a kayak paddle with, were the people to see.
Much of this land is open tundra and boreal forest (the dry, cold-weather, spruce-dominated forests of the far north). . However, fws also manages substantial tracts of the kenai peninsula and Kodiak island (as well as much of the sparsely forested Alaska peninsula and the blm controls enclaves near Cordova and skagway. The blm employs a multi-use management plan to manage lands open for human use, including commercial timber sales, harvesting for house logs, firewood, wildlife management, subsistence activities, and recreation. . Much of the blms land is interior, and therefore of marginal value for commercial logging. . The fish wildlife service primarily manages Alaskas large national Wildlife refuges (including the famous Arctic National Wildlife refuge and pursues more conservation-oriented policies. The blm is also the primary agency responsible wildfire suppression about in Alaska, and operates the Alaska fire service, which includes the Alaska smokejumpers. . It is directly responsible for fire suppression on all blm and Native corporation lands a combined area equal to roughly 1/6 of the state. . Wildfire suppression forces in Alaska practice interagency cooperation, and blm forces frequently respond to fires on other lands. Finally, the national Park service manages.4 million acres of land, including large portions of the Alaska range, brooks Range, and Wrangel-St.
The national Forests are predominantly coastal rainforests, which are too wet for database severe burning. . Wildfire is not a problem. . Perhaps more surprising is the absence of timber sales, despite the heavy support given to logging in year the tongass National Forest, through road construction and the administration and management of timber. . The actual quantity of logging is small less than 2,000 acres in 2011. Other government Forest Land Managers Tutka forest we descended through forest and meadows clinging to domed rock hills. The bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the. Fish wildlife service (FWS) are the 2nd and 3rd largest land-managers in the state, respectively responsible for.5 and.8 million acres of land. .
Forest Services strategic plan for Alaska, identifies goals in three areas: Invasive species: The detection and reporting non-native, invasive species is a priority. . This includes plants, insects, and diseases, such as the spruce beetle, leaf miner moths, and spotted knapweed. . A changing climate has increased Alaskas vulnerability to invasive species. Climate Change: The plan calls for observing the effects of climate change on the national Forests, predicting more long-term climate changes and impacts, and developing new forestry strategies to adapt to them. . The forest Service has gone so far as to list another objective: redefining forest health to take climate changes effects into account, since presumably old yardsticks for forest health, from tree growth rates to insect outbreaks, will all change along with climate. Communication: Lastly, the region 10 strategic plan prioritizes communication with forest stakeholders. Wildfire suppression and timber sales are notably absent from the usfs region 10 Strategic goals. .
Deforestation, of The, rainforest, essay
Alaska native corporations With.3 million acres of Alaska under their care, including large swathes of forested (or formerly forested) land, Alaska native corporations (ANCs) own a large collective swathe of Alaskas forests Surface resource rights (including timber) for much of this land are owned. With 13 major regional native corporations and numerous village corporations established in Alaska, there is no single, cohesive management plan for anc lands. Historically, many ancs have logged their lands for export during times of high timber values. . Such harvests were not intended to be sustainable, but to convert timber assets into cash. . In the mid-1980s, loss-selling played a major role in anc logging, and according to critics it encouraged reckless deforestation and asset destruction.
Forest Service region 10 (Alaska) Strategic goals The. Forest Service is disproportionately important in Alaska forest management, due to the nature of its holdings. . It manages.3 million acres of Alaskas forests, making it only the 6th largest owner of forest land. However, the national Forests encompass most of the coastal rainforests in Alaska that are not incorporated into national Parks. . This makes the forest Service the primary steward of most of Alaskas high-productivity, logging-eligible rainforest. The national Forests are concentrated in the temperate rainforest belts of the southern and southeastern coasts, where its overall goals include forest management and promoting the economic development of rural communities. .
The Alaska department of Natural Resources division of Forestry has outlined 5 key issues 5 MB framing discussions of forestry management: Cutting along the fire line, cutting and digging along the fire-line showed the intense effort that had prevented this fire from spreading further. Fire represents both a critical aspect of forest health and, at times, a significant danger to human habitation. . over a million acres of forest burns every year in Alaska. The number and intensity of fires has been growing over the last few decades, due primarily to a combination of deadfall from the spruce beetle epidemic, and the effects of climate change. Sustainable forest products includes not just timber for construction, but wood and biomass for fuel on both an industrial and personal use scale. Timber production has ranged between 8 and 61 million board feet annually over the last decade, and currently represents about.6 of the Alaskan economy. .
Logging, particularly clear-cutting, can have significant negative impact on salmon habitat, erosion control, water quality, and general ecosystem quality. . However, selective logging can minimize these impacts. Forest health concerns disease, pests such as the spruce bark beetle, and the effects of climate change on forest ecosystems. Community benefits from forests include recreation, tourism, hunting/fishing, and subsistence. Ecosystem services provided by Alaskan forests include water and air quality, and fish and wildlife habitat. Forests are critical for maintaining salmon spawning habitat, which in turn has large economic, social, and ecological value.
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Bureau of Land Management, the, forest Service, the, fish wildlife service, the, national Park service, and the. the department of Defense (dod perhaps the least-known owner of federal forest land, alone controls.7 million acres pdf of Alaska land, making it the 5th largest federal landowner. . Much of the dod land is dry, cold-weather woodlands in the interior near fairbanks and Delta junction. State of Alaska department of Natural Resources. The State of Alaska owns.8 million acres of the state more than any other entity. . Its holdings include interior forests, small parcels of coastal rainforest, and most of the transitional forests which fill the matanuska-susitna valley and are biologically intermediate between the wet coastal rainforests and the dry, cold-weather interior forests. . The Alaska department of Natural Resources manages this land.
This causes silt (fine sand) and topsoil which is rich in nutrients, to wash nepali away into rivers and streams, which in turn can suffocate the fish and other organisms in the water. Land in Alaska is managed by the federal government (51 local governments (25 native corporations (24) and private landowners (0.4). . All four of these groups own and manage tracts of Alaska forest. . Debate continues over priorities for the use and reasonable regulation of this resource. . The logging industry points out the need for timber and the employment brought by logging, but salmon fishermen, hunters, subsistence users, and the tourist industry support forest conservation. Forest painted by fire, fire left this forest a tapestry of colors. Black charcoal, red and yellow singed leaves, and green untouched forest. Alaska's Federal lands, a substantial portion of which are forested, are themselves are controlled by many organizations with different policies and charters: the.
Commercial logging companies cut down mature trees that have been selected for their timber. Wood is used for many things, including building, making furniture, and as firewood. Selective logging is a process of cutting down large trees that are old enough to die and good enough to use for building and furniture. The logging companies justify their action by saying that this method of "selective" logging ensures that the forest regrows naturally, and in time is once again ready for their "safe" logging practices. However, the felling of one "selected" tree tears down with it climbers, vines, epiphytes and lianas. A large hole is left in the canopy and complete regeneration of the forest in this area can take hundreds of years. Also, the tracks made by heavy machinery and the clearings left behind by loggers (where the trees used to be are sites of extreme soil disturbance which begin to erode in heavy rain.
Jedoch ist die ökologie der noch vorhandenen Waldfragmente in Nordäthiopien nur wenig untersucht. Das ziel dieser Studie ist daher (i) die vielfalt der Pflanzenarten und ihre natürliche regeneration im Zusammenhang mit ausgewählten Umweltfaktoren zu untersuchen, (ii) die höhenabhängige verteilung der Artenvielfalt und die zusammensetzung der Pflanzengemeinschaften zu quantifizieren, (iii) das Ausmaß und die räumliche verteilung stehender toter baumstämme. Juniperus procera und, olea europaea subsp. Die studie wurde in den afromontanen Wäldern Desaa und Hugumburda, roles die größten Waldfragmente in Nordäthiopien und mit nationaler Schutzpriorität, durchgeführt. Deforestation, causes of deforestation. Agriculture: people living near the rainforests sometimes cut down the trees in order to create farms for the cultivation of crops. On a larger scale, in some countries whole groups of people move from place to place around the forest, clearing the trees in order to use the land for agriculture. The process of cutting down trees and burning bush in order to clear the land for farming, is known as "slash and burn". The farmers find that the rainforest's soil is very fertile at first, but as time progresses, these farmers encounter the same problems as the cash crop growers,.
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Abstract, deforestation and habitat fragmentation that arise largely due to the conversion of forests to other agricultural land-use types and over-utilization of forest resources to satisfy the food and energy requirements of the increasing population are major environmental concerns in northern Ethiopia. Understanding for plant species diversity and spatial distribution along environmental gradients is crucial in the management of the remnant forest ecosystems. However, the ecology of the forest remnants in northern Ethiopia is poorly studied. The purpose of this study is therefore to (i) investigate plant species diversity and natural regeneration in relation to selected environmental factors, (ii) quantify the elevation patterns of species diversity and community composition, (iii) examine the extent and spatial distribution pattern of standing dead stems. Juniperus procera and, olea europaea subsp. Cuspidata in an openaccess forest area to a closed forest management system. The study was conducted in the desaa and Hugumburda Afromontane forest remnants, which are the largest forest fragments in northern Ethiopia and are national forest priority areas. Zusammenfassung, abholzung und die fragmentierung der Lebensräume, hauptsächlich als Folge der Umwandlung der Wälder in andere landwirtschaftliche nutzungen sowie die ausbeutung der Waldressourcen, um den Nahrungsmittel- und Energiebedarf der wachsenden bevölkerung zu befriedigen, verursachen erhebliche Umweltprobleme in Nordäthiopien. Kenntnisse der Pflanzenvielfalt und räumlichen Verteilung entlang Umweltgradienten ist entscheidend bei der Bewirtschaftung der verbleibenden Waldökosysteme.