However, both sounds are extensively used in current colloquial and official Malayalam, and although they were allophones in Old Malayalam, they now occasionally contrast in gemination for example, eāl by me first person singular pronoun in the instrumental case) and ennāl if that. The letter represents both /p a phoneme occurring in Sanskrit loanwords, and /f which is mostly found in comparatively recent borrowings from European languages. The voiceless unaspirated plosives, the nasals and the laterals can be geminated. 40 The retroflex lateral is clearly retroflex, but may be more of a flap ( ɺ ) than an approximant. The approximant /ɻ/ has both rhotic and lateral qualities, and is indeterminate between an approximant and a fricative, but is laminal post-alveolar rather than a true retroflex. The articulation changes part-way through, perhaps explaining why it behaves as both a rhotic and a lateral, both an approximant and a fricative, but the nature of the change is not understood. 41 Number system and other symbols edit Praslesham corresponds to devanagari avagraha, used when a sanskrit phrase containing an avagraha is written in Malayalam script. The symbol indicates the elision of the word-initial vowel a after a word that ends in ā, ē, or ō, and is transliterated as an apostrophe or sometimes as a colon and apostrophe.
Malayalam, essay, on beauty Of, nature
40 Vowels edit The first letter in Malayalam ɨ/ is the savr̥tōkāram, an epenthentic vowel in Malayalam. Therefore, it has no independent vowel letter (because it never occurs at the beginning of words) but, when it comes after a consonant, there are various ways of representing. In medieval times, it was just represented with the symbol for /u but later on it was just completely omitted (that is, written as an inherent vowel). In modern times, it is written in two different ways the northern style, in which a chandrakkala is used, and the southern or Travancore style, in which the diacritic for a /u/ is attached to the preceding consonant and a chandrakkala is written above. a/ (phonetically central: ä) and /ə/ are both represented as basic or "default" vowels in the Abugida script (although /ə/ never occurs word-initially and therefore does not make use of the letter but they are distinct vowels. Malayalam has also borrowed the sanskrit diphthongs of /äu/ (represented in Malayalam as, au) and /ai/ (represented in Malayalam as, ai although these mostly occur only in Sanskrit loanwords. Traditionally (as in Sanskrit four vocalic consonants (usually pronounced in Malayalam as consonants followed by the savr̥tōkāram, which is not officially a vowel, and not as actual vocalic consonants) have been classified as vowels: vocalic r /rɨ write r̥ long vocalic r /rɨ r̥ vocalic. Except for the first, the other three have been omitted from the current script used in Kerala as there are no words in current Malayalam that use them. Consonants edit labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal Nasal m m n n n ɳ ṇ ɲ ñ ŋ stop plain p p b b t t d d t * ʈ ṭ ɖ ḍ tʃ c dʒ j k k ɡ g aspirated. The archaic letter can be found in the row here. The alveolar nasal also had a separate character that is now obsolete (it can be seen in the row here 3 ) and the sound is now almost always represented by the symbol that was originally used only for the dental nasal.
There were 179,860 speakers of Malayalam in the United States, according to the 2000 census, with plan the highest concentrations in Bergen county, new Jersey and Rockland county, new York. 37 There are 172,000 of Malayalam speakers in Malaysia. There were 7,093 Malayalam speakers in Australia in 2006. canadian census reported 7,070 people who listed Malayalam as their mother tongue, mainly in Toronto, ontario. The 2006 New zealand census reported 2,139 speakers. 39 134 Malayalam speaking households were reported in 1956 in Fiji. There is also a considerable malayali population in the persian Gulf regions, especially in Dubai and Doha. Phonology edit Spoken Malayalam For the consonants and vowels, the ipa (International Phonetic Alphabet) symbol is given, followed by the malayalam character and the iso 15919 transliteration.
Geographic distribution margaret and population edit see also: Kerala gulf diaspora and States of India by malayalam speakers Malayalam is a language spoken by the native people of southwestern India (from Talapady to kanyakumari).According to the Indian census of 2011, there were 32,299,239 speakers of Malayalam. There were a further 701,673 (2.1 of the total number) in Karnataka, 957,705 (2.7) in Tamil Nadu, and 406,358 (1.2) in Maharashtra. The number of Malayalam speakers in lakshadweep is 51,100, which is only.15 of the total number, but is as writings much as about 84 of the population of lakshadweep. In all, malayalis made.22 of the total Indian population in 2011. Of the total 34,713,130 Malayalam speakers in India in 2011, 33,015,420 spoke the standard dialects, 19,643 spoke the yerava dialect and 31,329 spoke non-standard regional variations like eranadan. 36 As per the 1991 census data,.85 of all Malayalam speakers in India spoke a second language and.64 of the total knew three or more languages. Large numbers of Malayalis have settled in Chennai (Madras bangalore, hyderabad, mumbai (Bombay pune and Delhi. A large number of Malayalis have also emigrated to the middle east, the United States, and Europe.
According to sooranad Kunjan Pillai who compiled the authoritative malayalam lexicon, the other principal languages whose vocabulary was incorporated over the ages were pali, prakrit, urdu, hindi, chinese, arabic, syriac, dutch and Portuguese. 33 Many medieval liturgical texts were written in an admixture of Sanskrit and early malayalam, called Manipravalam. 34 The influence of Sanskrit was very prominent in formal Malayalam used in literature. Malayalam has a substantially high amount of Sanskrit loan words but are seldom used. 35 loan words and influences also from Hebrew, syriac and Ladino abound in the jewish Malayalam dialects, as well as English, portuguese, syriac and Greek in the Christian dialects, while Arabic and Persian elements predominate in the muslim dialects. The muslim dialect known as Mappila malayalam is used in the malabar region of Kerala. Another Muslim dialect called beary bashe is used in the extreme northern part of Kerala and the southern part of Karnataka. For a comprehensive list of loan words, see loan words in Malayalam.
Essay on natural beauty of kerala in, malayalam
The amount of Sanskrit influence, however, is found to be steadily date decreasing as one descends along the parameter of education. One of the striking features differentiating the nair dialect from the ezhava dialect is the phonetic quality of the word-final: an enunciative vowel unusually transcribed as "U". In the nair dialect it is a mid-central unrounded vowel whereas in the ezhava dialect it is often heard as a lower high back unrounded vowel. The syrian Christian dialect of Malayalam is quite close to the nair dialect, especially in phonology. The speech of the educated section among Syrian Christians and that of those who are close to the church are peculiar in having a number of assimilated as well as unassimilated loan words from English and Syriac. The few loan words which have found their way into the Christian dialect are assimilated in many cases through the process of de-aspiration.
The latin Christian dialect of Malayalam is close to the fishermen dialect. It is also influenced by latin, portuguese and English. Citation needed The muslim dialect shows maximum divergence from the literary Standard dialect of Malayalam. It is very much influenced by Arabic and Urdu rather than by sanskrit or by English. The retroflex continuant zha of the literary dialect is realised in the muslim dialect as the palatal. Tamil spoken in the kanyakumari district has many malayalam words. External influences and loanwoards edit malayalam has incorporated many elements from other languages over the years, the most notable of these being Sanskrit and later, English.
This seems to reveal the significance of political divisions in Kerala in bringing about dialect difference. Citation needed divergence among dialects of Malayalam embrace almost all aspects of language such as phonetics, phonology, grammar and vocabulary. Differences between any two given dialects can be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of specific units at each level of the language. To cite a single example of language variation along the geographical parameter, it may be noted that there are as many as seventy seven different expressions employed by the ezhavas and spread over various geographical points just to refer to a single item, namely, the. 'kola' is the expression attested in most of the panchayats in the palakkad, ernakulam and Thiruvananthapuram districts of Kerala, whereas 'kolachil' occurs most predominantly in Kannur and Kochi and 'klannil' in Alappuzha and Kollam.
'kozhinnul' and 'kulannilu' are the forms most common in Trissur Idukki and Kottayam respectively. In addition to these forms most widely spread among the areas specified above, there are dozens of other forms such as 'kotumpu' (Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram 'katirpu' ( Kottayam krali ( Pathanamthitta pattachi, gnannil ( Kollam 'pochata' ( Palakkad ) etc. Referring to the same item. It may be noted at this point that labels such as "Brahmin dialect" and "Syrian Caste dialect" refer to overall patterns constituted by the sub-dialects spoken by the subcastes or sub-groups of each such caste. The most outstanding features of the major communal dialects of Malayalam are summarized below: Lexical items with phonological features reminiscent of Sanskrit (e.g., viddhi, meaning "fool bhosku lie musku impudence dustu impurity and eebhyan and sumbhan (both meaning "good-for-nothing fellow abound in this dialect. The dialect of the educated stratum among the nairs resembles the Brahmin dialect in many respects.
Malayalam, language - ccaconf
According to the london Dravidian Encyclopedia, the regional dialects of Malayalam can be divided into thirteen dialect areas. 31 They are as follows: south Travancore central Travancore west Vempanad North Travancore kochi-Thrissur south Malabar south Eastern Palghat North Western Palghat Central Malabar wayanad North Malabar Kasaragod lakshadweep According to Ethnologue, the dialects are: 21 Malabar, nagari-malayalam, south Kerala, central Kerala, north Kerala, kayavar. The community dialects are: Namboodiri, nair, moplah (Mapilla), pulaya, and Nasrani. 21 Whereas both the namboothiri and nair dialects have a common nature, the mapilla dialect is among the most divergent of dialects, differing considerably from literary malayalam. 21 As regards the geographical dialects of Malayalam, surveys conducted so far by the department of Linguistics, University of Kerala restricted the focus of attention during a given study on one specific caste so as to avoid mixing up of more than one variable such. Thus for examples, the survey of the ezhava dialect of Malayalam, results of which have been published by the department in 1974, has brought to light the existence of twelve major dialect areas for Malayalam, although the isoglosses are found to crisscross in many instances. Sub-dialect regions, which could be marked off, were found to be thirty. This number is reported to tally approximately with the number of principalities that existed during the pre-British period in Kerala. In a few instances at least, as in the case of Venad, karappuram, nileswaram and Kumbala, the known boundaries of old principalities are found to coincide with those of certain dialects or sub-dialects that retain their individuality even today.
This is based on the resume fact that Malayalam and several Dravidian languages on the western coast have common features which are not found even in the oldest historical forms of Tamil. 25 Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book " a comparative grammar of the Dravidian or south-Indian Family of Languages", opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs. 20 As the language of scholarship and administration, Old-Tamil, which was written in Tamil-Brahmi and the vatteluttu alphabet later, greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. The malayalam script began to diverge from the tamil-Brahmi script in the 8th and 9th centuries. And by the end of the 13th century a written form of the language emerged which was unique from the tamil-Brahmi script that was used to write tamil. Malayalam is similar to some Sri lankan Tamil dialects, and the two are often mistaken by native indian Tamil speakers. 27 28 dialects edit variations in intonation patterns, vocabulary, and distribution of grammatical and phonological elements are observable along the parameters of region, religion, community, occupation, social stratum, style and register. Dialects of Malayalam are distinguishable at regional and social levels, 29 including occupational and also communal differences. The salient features of many varieties of tribal speech (e.g., the speech of Muthuvans, malayarayas, malai ulladas, kanikkars, kadars, paliyars, kurumas, and Vedas) and those of the various dialects Namboothiris, nairs, ezhavas, syrian Christians (Nasrani latin Christians, muslims, fishermen and many of the occupational terms.
centuries. The first travelogue in any Indian language is the malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by paremmakkal Thoma kathanar in 1785. 18 19 Contents Etymology edit The word Malayalam originated from the tamil words malai, meaning "mountain and alam, meaning "region" or "-ship" (as in "township malayalam thus translates directly as "the mountain region." The term originally referred to the land of the Chera dynasty, and. 20 The language malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, malayalani, malayali, malean, maliyad, and Mallealle. 21 The earliest extant literary works in the regional language of present-day kerala probably date back to as early as the 12th century. However, the named identity of this language appears to have come into existence only around the 16th century, when it was known as "Malayayma" or "Malayanma the words were also used to refer to the script and the region. The word "Malayalam" was coined in the later period, and the local people referred to their language as both "Tamil" and "Malayalam" until the colonial period. 22 evolution edit The generally held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil 23 and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Some scholars however believe that both Tamil and Malayalam developed during the prehistoric period from a common ancestor, 'proto-tamil-Dravidian and that the notion of Malayalam being a 'daughter' of Tamil is misplaced.
7 8 9, it belongs to the, dravidian family of languages and is spoken by 38 million people. Malayalam is also spoken by linguistic minorities in mini the neighbouring states; with significant number of speakers in the. Nilgiris, kanyakumari and, coimbatore districts of, tamil Nadu, and, dakshina kannada district of Karnataka. Malayalam serves as a link language on certain islands, including the mahl -dominated Minicoy island. The origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle tamil and separated from it sometime after. . A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-tamil-Dravidian" in the prehistoric era. 14 The earliest script used to write malayalam was the vatteluttu alphabet, and later the kolezhuttu, which derived from. The current Malayalam script is based on the vatteluttu script, which was extended with Grantha script letters to adopt Indo-Aryan loanwords from Sanskrit.
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Not to be confused with, malay language. Malayalam ( /mæləjɑləm/ ; 5, malayāḷam? Maləjaɭəm ) is a, dravidian language spoken across the Indian state. Kerala by the, malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Designated real a classical Language in India " in 2013, 6 it was developed into the current form mainly by the influence of the poet. Thunchaththu ezhuthachan in the 16th century. Malayalam has official language status in the state of, kerala and in the union territories.