Return to melville home page Please address all correspondence on this Site to the life and Works of Herman Melville is brought to you by multiverse). Ancient philosophy - especially after Aristotle - largely focused on how to achieve self-sufficiency on the one hand, and peace of mind on the other; it thus became fundamentally therapeutic, in nature and goal. Though ancient philosophers are generally known for their praise of friendship, there is an evident tension involved in these positions: the possession of friends seems almost unhelpful, nearly inimical, to self-sufficiency and peace of mind. As fulfilling as friendships generally are, they often lead to mutual dependency and a loss of the tranquility thought to accompany solitude. The problems grow even more acute when one considers other, more intimate forms of human relationships, those celebrated less widely in ancient philosophy, such as sexual intercourse and romantic love, both of which intuitively seem even more threatening to self-sufficiency and mental tranquility than friendship. Two schools of Hellenistic philosophy in particular, Stoicism and Epicureanism, struggled to find coherent positions on each of these three forms of human relationships, to draw clean lines around what is worth pursuing and what is not, what is acceptable and what is not; ultimately. The Epicureans divided all desires along two axial lines: some are natural, others unnatural; the fulfillment of some is necessary, of others unnecessary.
Owen mzee: The, true story of a remarkable Friendship
The initial abundance of warmth and fellowship had faded for reasons which can only be conjectured. Melville may have come to feel that Hawthorne was not as profoundly sympathetic and responsive as he trip had at first seemed; for his part, hawthorne was unsuccesful in using his long-established connections with Franklin pierce to secure a government post for the about impoverished Melville,. The two men met for the last time in november 1856: en route to the mediterranean Melville stopped in liverpool, where hawthorne had been appointed American Consul; the two spent several days together, which Hawthorne recorded in his journal as follows: "Herman Melville came. We soon found ourselves on pretty much our former terms of sociability and confidence. Melville has not been well, of late;. And no doubt has suffered from too constant literary occupation, pursued without much success, latterly; and his writings, for a long while past, have indicated a morbid state of mind. Melville, as he always does, began to reason of Providence and futurity, and of everything that lies beyond human ken, and informed me that he had "pretty much made up his mind to be annihilated but still he does not seem to rest in that. It is strange how he persists - and has persisted ever since i knew him, and probably long before - in wondering to-and-fro over these deserts, as dismal and monotonous as the sand hills amid which we were sitting. He can neither believe, nor be comfortable in his unbelief; and he is too honest and courageous not to try to do one or the other. If he were a religious man, he would be one of the most truly religious and reverential; he has a very high and noble nature, and better worth immortality than most." Although Melville never corresponded with Hawthorne again, he did not forget him. He continued to read and annotate hawthorne's works after the latter's death in 1864 (Melville's copies of Hawthorne texts are preserved in Harvard's houghton Library the reserved and finally unresponsive traveler Vine in Clarel is widely considered to have been based on Hawthorne; and the.
In the beginning the relationship was a great source of comfort and parts intellectual stimulation to melville, who believed he had finally found the soul mate for whom he had been yearning. Sophia hawthorne observed, "Mr. Melville, generally silent and uncommunicative, pours out the rich floods of his mind and experience to nathaniel Hawthorne, so sure of apprehension, so sure of a large and generous interpretation, and of the most delicate and fine judgment." Hawthorne's influence, in fact, is credited. In August of 1852 Melville wrote to hawthorne about the true story of a new England woman who had taken in and married a shipwrecked sailor only to be abandoned by him. "The Story of Agatha melville thought, would be a perfect subject for the application of Hawthorne's talents; the older man, however, felt little enthusiasm for the project and after a few desultory attempts suggested that Melville write the story himself. Melville agreed, but it is uncertain now whether he ever actually did anything with the material; at any rate, no published version of the story by him has been discovered. The "Agatha" correspondence marks nearly the end of the melville - hawthorne relationship, which had lasted only a little over two years.
The two authors met for the first time in Stockbridge on August 5, 1850, on a picnic excursion hosted by david Dudley field. Hawthorne was forty-six and gender was familiar with at least a portion biography of Melville's work, having favorably reviewed. Typee in the, salem Advertiser (March 25, 1846 melville was thirty-one and had just written or was about to write an exceedingly warm and enthusiastic piece on Hawthorne's. Mosses From an Old Manse, a copy of which had been given to him by an aunt a few weeks before. Early in the course of the excursion, a sudden thunderstorm forced the party to take shelter, giving Melville and Hawthorne an opportunity to become better acquainted. The two men took to each other at once, and as their conversation continued were delighted to discover a growing bond of mutual sympathy and comprehension. Two days later Hawthorne wrote to a friend "I liked Melville so much that I have asked him to spend a few days with." This would be the first of a series of visits, supplemented by written correspondence, that would continue until the gradual.
A man can scarce allege his own merits with modesty, much less extol them; a man cannot sometimes brook to supplicate or beg; and a number of the like. But all these things are graceful, in a friends mouth, which are blushing in a mans own. So again, a mans person hath many proper relations, which he cannot put off. A man cannot speak to his son but as a father; to his wife but as a husband; to his enemy but upon terms: whereas a friend may speak as the case requires, and not as it sorteth with the person. But to enumerate these things were endless; I have given the rule, where a man cannot fitly play his own part; if he have not a friend, he may quit the stage. Preface of Truth Of death Of Unity of revenge of Adversity of Simulation and Dissimulation Of Parents Of Marriage of Envy of love of Great Place of Boldness Of goodness goodness of Nature of Nobility of Seditions Of Atheism Of Superstition Of Travel Of Empire. Melville and Nathaniel, hawthorneA page from, the life and. Works of, herman Melville, in the summer of 1850 Melville purchased an eighteenth-century farmhouse in the community of Pittsfield in Berkshire county, massachusetts. Berkshire was then home to a number of prominent literary figures such as Fanny kemble, oliver Wendell Holmes, james Russell Lowell, and, in Lenox, less than six miles from.
The everlasting Stream
And if any man think that he will take counsel, but it devops shall be by pieces; asking counsel in one business, of one man, and in another business, of another man; it is well (that is to say, better, perhaps, than if he asked none. The other, that he shall have counsel given, hurtful and unsafe (though with good meaning and mixed partly of mischief and partly of remedy; even as if you would call a physician, that is thought good for the cure of the disease you complain. But a friend that is wholly acquainted with a mans estate, will beware, by furthering any present business, how he dasheth upon other inconvenience. And therefore rest not upon scattered counsels; they will rather distract and mislead, than settle and direct. After these two noble fruits of friendship (peace in the affections, and support of the judgment followeth the last fruit; which is like the pomegranate, full of many kernels; I mean aid, and bearing a part, in all actions and occasions. Here the best way to represent to life the manifold use of friendship, is to cast and see how many things there are, which a man cannot do himself; and then it will appear, that it was a sparing speech of the ancients, to say.
Men have their time, and die many times, in desire of some things which they principally take to heart; the bestowing of a child, the finishing of a work, or the like. If a man have a true friend, he may rest almost secure that the care of those things will continue after him. So that a man hath, as it were, two lives in his desires. A man hath a body, and that body is confined to a place; but where friendship is, all offices of life are as it were granted to him, and his deputy. For he may exercise them by his friend. How many things are there which a man cannot, with any face or comeliness, say or do himself?
Heraclitus saith well in one of his enigmas, Dry light is ever the best. And certain it is, that the light that a man receiveth by counsel from another, is drier and purer, than that which cometh from his own understanding and judgment; which is ever infused, and drenched, in his affections and customs. So as there is as much difference between the counsel, that a friend giveth, and that a man giveth himself, as there is between the counsel of a friend, and of a flatterer. For there is no such flatterer as is a mans self; and there is no such remedy against flattery of a mans self, as the liberty of a friend. Counsel is of two sorts: the one concerning manners, the other concerning business.
For the first, the best preservative to keep the mind in health, is the faithful admonition of a friend. The calling of a mans self to a strict account, is a medicine, sometime too piercing and corrosive. Reading good books of morality, is a little flat and dead. Observing our faults in others, is sometimes improper for our case. But the best receipt (best, i say, to work, and best to take) is the admonition of a friend. It is a strange thing to behold, what gross errors and extreme absurdities many (especially of the greater sort) do commit, for want of a friend to tell them of them; to the great damage both of their fame and fortune: for,. James saith, they are as men that look sometimes into a glass, and presently forget their own shape and favor. As for business, a man may think, if he win, that two eyes see no more than one; or that a gamester seeth always more than a looker-on; or that a man in anger, is as wise as he that hath said over the four. But when all is done, the help of good counsel, is that which setteth business straight.
Friendship day, messages, Messages for, friendship day
For in bodies, union strengtheneth and cherisheth any natural action; and on the assignment other side, weakeneth and dulleth any violent impression: and even so it is of minds. The second fruit of friendship, is healthful and sovereign for the understanding, as the first is for the affections. For friendship maketh indeed a fair day in the affections, from storm and tempests; but it maketh daylight in the understanding, out of darkness, and confusion of thoughts. Neither is this to be understood only of faithful counsel, which a man receiveth from his friend; but before you come to that, thesis certain it is, that whosoever hath his mind fraught with many thoughts, his wits and understanding do clarify and break up,. It was well said by Themistocles, to the king of Persia, that speech was like cloth of Arras, opened and put abroad; whereby the imagery doth appear in figure; whereas in thoughts they lie but as in packs. Neither is this second fruit of friendship, in opening the understanding, restrained only to such friends as are able to give a man counsel; (they indeed are best but even without that, a man learneth of himself, and bringeth his own thoughts to light, and. In a word, a man were better relate himself to a statua, or picture, than to suffer his thoughts to pass in smother. Add now, to make this second fruit of friendship complete, that other point, which lieth more open, and falleth within vulgar observation; which is faithful counsel from a friend.
It is not to be forgotten, what Comineus observeth of his first master, duke charles the hardy, namely, that he would communicate his secrets with none; and least of all, those secrets which troubled him most. Whereupon he goeth on, and saith that towards his latter time, that closeness did impair, and a little perish his understanding. Surely comineus mought have made the same judgment also, if it had pleased him, of his second master, lewis the Eleventh, whose closeness was indeed his tormentor. The parable of Pythagoras is dark, but true; Cor ne edito; Eat not the heart. Certainly, if a man would give it a hard phrase, those that want friends, to open themselves unto, are carnnibals of their own hearts. But one thing is most admirable (wherewith I will conclude this first fruit of friendship which is, that this communicating of a mans self to his friend, works two contrary effects; for it redoubleth joys, and cutteth griefs in halves. For there is no man, that imparteth his joys to his friend, but he joyeth the more; and no man that imparteth his griefs to his friend, but he grieveth the less. So that it is in truth, of operation upon a mans mind, of like virtue as the alchemists use to attribute to their stone, for mans body; that it worketh all contrary effects, relief but still to the good and benefit of nature. But yet without praying in aid of alchemists, there is a manifest image of this, in the ordinary course of nature.
death. For when caesar would have discharged the senate, in regard of some ill presages, and specially a dream of Calpurnia; this man lifted him gently by the arm out of his chair, telling him he hoped he would not dismiss the senate, till his wife. And it seemeth his favor was so great, as Antonius, in a letter which is recited verbatim in one of Ciceros Philippics, calleth him venefica, witch; as if he had enchanted caesar. Augustus raised Agrippa (though of mean birth) to that height, as when he consulted with maecenas, about the marriage of his daughter Julia, maecenas took the liberty to tell him, that he must either marry his daughter to Agrippa, or take away his life; there. With Tiberius caesar, sejanus had ascended to that height, as they two were termed, and reckoned, as a pair of friends. Tiberius in a letter to him saith, haec pro amicitia nostra non occultavi; and the whole senate dedicated an altar to Friendship, as to a goddess, in respect of the great dearness of friendship, between them two. The like, or more, was between Septimius severus and Plautianus. For he forced his eldest son to marry the daughter of Plautianus; and would often maintain Plautianus, in doing affronts to his son; and did write also in a letter to the senate, by these words: I love the man so well, as I wish. Now if these princes had been as a trajan, or a marcus Aurelius, a man might have thought that this had proceeded of an abundant goodness of nature; but being men so wise, of such strength and severity of mind, and so extreme lovers.
We know diseases of stoppings, and suffocations, are the most dangerous in the body; and it is not much otherwise in the mind; you may take sarza to open the liver, steel to open the spleen, flowers of sulphur for the lungs, castoreum for the. It is a strange thing to observe, how high a rate great kings and monarchs do set upon this fruit of friendship, whereof we speak: so great, as they purchase it, many times, at the hazard of their own safety and greatness. For princes, in regard of the distance of their fortune from that of their subjects and servants, cannot gather this fruit, except (to make themselves capable thereof) they raise some persons general to be, as it were, companions and almost equals to themselves, which many times. The modern languages give unto such persons the name of favorites, or privadoes; as if it were matter of grace, or conversation. But the roman name attaineth the true use and cause thereof, naming them participes curarum; for it is that which tieth the knot. And we see plainly that this hath been done, not by weak and passionate princes only, but by the wisest and most politic that ever reigned; who have oftentimes joined to themselves some of their servants; whom both themselves have called friends, and allowed other. Sylla, when he commanded Rome, raised Pompey (after surnamed the Great) to that height, that Pompey vaunted himself for Syllas overmatch. For when he had carried the consulship for a friend of his, against the pursuit of Sylla, and that Sylla did a little resent thereat, and began to speak great, pompey turned upon him again, and in effect bade him be quiet; for that more.
Essays of Francis Bacon
Presented by, authorama, public Domain books, francis Bacon (1561-1626). It had been hard for him that spake it to have put more truth and untruth together in few words, than in that speech, Whatsoever is delighted in solitude, is either a wild beast or a god. For it is most true, that a natural and secret hatred, and aversation towards society, in any man, hath somewhat of the savage beast; but it is most untrue, that it should have any character at all, of the divine nature; except it proceed, not. But little do men perceive what solitude legs is, and how far it extendeth. For a crowd is not company; and faces are but a gallery of pictures; and talk but a tinkling cymbal, where there is no love. The latin adage meeteth with it a little: Magna civitas, magna solitudo; because in a great town friends are scattered; so that there is not that fellowship, for the most part, which is in less neighborhoods. But we may go further, and affirm most truly, that it is a mere and miserable solitude to want true friends; without which the world is but a wilderness; and even in this sense also of solitude, whosoever in the frame of his nature and. A principal fruit of friendship, is the ease and discharge of the fulness and swellings of the heart, which passions of all kinds do cause and induce.